My experience with LiMux

They are accessed via block device files. Freedom not to have to pay $300 or $400 for making your computer even useful, for something other than a calculator. The application can then trap into the kernel through this well-defined mechanism and execute only code that the kernel allows it to …

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Is experience with mpg123 an employable skill?

However, not all Linux installations use GNU components as a part of their operating system. In that case, the new bytes (which are added to the end of the file) are filled with zeros. Although the source code must be made freely available in all cases, there is no requirement …

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Does it run under KDE on the Linux Lite distro?

An alternative to purchasing a Linux book is to borrow one (or many) from a library; it is likely that some of them will also contain CDROMs that can be used to install Linux. And the vast profits being amassed by some of those corporations added to the frustration. Instead …

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Sysadmin and Devops using mkdosfs

The default action for the SIGFPE signal will core dump the process and then cause it to exit. Each IDE controller can support up to two disks, one the master disk and the other the slave disk. People will stand up and take notice and realize that Linux is not …

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Developing with slabtop

Finally, if you are contributing to an existing kernel module, you will need to learn about their procedures and development cycle. In Linux, the standard C compiler is provided by the GNU Compiler Collection (gcc). It would not matter to me which distro was being advocated as long as the …

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Principles of LTTng-Tools under Linux

However, such programs are typically also made available for free (usually as a free download from the Internet). For example, on your computer, as a normal user you may have permission to access other files on the system. This waiting happens within the system call, in system mode; the process …

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Getting acquainted with Miracle Linux

The module data structure is marked as DELETED and it is unlinked from the list of kernel modules. Most licenses of the proprietary software systems are expensive and should be renewed every year. These range from simple memory protection schemes to complex page hierarchies. You don't need to spend tons …

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A technical overview of edquota

If you have spent a lot of time on Windows this may take a while to get used to. The source code for proprietary software is usually not made publicly available, or, if it is, there are generally severe restrictions on its use. This means that the maximum number of …

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Creating a UPGRADE.TXT file for your distro

So when you're writing something in your word processor and you want to check out something on the web, no need to review all your windows to find your browser, stacked all the way behind the others. If you are not already familiar with the GNU GPL, the best way …

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How to set up the C environment on Ubuntu

Each user belongs to one or more groups, including a primary or login group, listed in /etc/passwd, and possibly a number of supplemental groups, listed in /etc/group. Manipulating symbolic links, on the other hand, requires special system calls. All the documentation and manuals are there, and examples are …

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The ultimate guide to sdiff

If you find a bug, report it! On i386, for example, a user-space application executes a software interrupt instruction, int, with a value of 0x80. However, such programs are typically also made available for free (usually as a free download from the Internet). Maybe it's a Linux firewall on a …

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Job control under Freesco

Both are very different from proprietary software (also commonly called commercial software), which is software that is controlled by a company or an individual. The other option for an account is "root." The root account enables you to do all most anything you want, to your system, as you will …

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Linux CLI goodness with rpcbind

As you can see, by use of scripting, any shell interaction can be automated and scripted. A typical Linux distribution includes the Linux kernel, but it also contains many application programs and tools. The device identifier for the first partition of that disk (/dev/hdb1) is (3,65). Knowledge and …

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Getting Gnome Flashback to work with a dual screen monitor

The kernel allocates a new module data structure and enough kernel memory to hold the new module and puts it at the end of the kernel modules list. By virtue of its open source licensing, Linux is freely available to anyone. People who develop OSS commonly use the Internet to …

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Determine hardware resources for devices

Python has always touted itself as a "batteries included" language; its standard library contains lots of useful modules, often more than enough to solve many types of problems quickly. To understand what OSS is, you must first understand how source code is used to create programs. In all cases, bash …

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Download via SFTP

Most file writing occurs at the end of the file. Computer software was almost universally regarded as being akin to mathematics, i.e., something that anybody is permitted to use in any amount, with any desired modifications and for whatever purpose desired. Where in I/O space the common peripherals …

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Running syslogd inside a docker image

The inode is both a physical object, located on disk in Unix-style filesystems, and a conceptual entity, represented by a data structure in the Linux kernel. It may not be the best choice for word processing (or maybe it is -- read on), but many see it as an "ISP in …

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Installing a web server under Moblin

Free software, as the term is usually used, and public domain software resemble each other in that both are usually free both in a monetary sense and with regard to use. Assuming that a module can be unloaded, its cleanup routine is called to allow it to free up the …

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Configuring biod in easy steps

By then, much of the GNU operating system had been completed, with the notable exception of a kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system). The device drivers for a class of block device provide class specific interfaces to the class. There is yet one other weakness: if a …

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Creating a COPYRIGHT.TXT file for your distro

Studying in a classroom environment can be the best choice for people who (1) prefer classes to self study, (2) do not have their own computer, (3) are lacking in motivation or study skills or (4) receive some type of tuition assistance or other grants to cover the costs of …

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Using the ifdown tool on Kali

IP addresses on the other hand can be assigned and reassigned by network administrators at will but the network hardware responds only to ethernet frames with its own physical address or to special multicast addresses which all machines must receive. Any site that is requested through the "what's that site …

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Introducing the Linux Shell

Linux is one of the most dominant and adaptable operating systems globally. Linux operating system is utilized in many areas of Computer Science, ranging from embedded to smart devices. This Operating system is utilized in High-Performance Computers, servers that are running the global Internet infrastructure services like DNS, smartphones, android …

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At the command line with lsof

The most common meaning for the term free software is programs whose source code is freely available to anyone to use for any purpose, including studying, copying, modifying, extending and giving away. This is an example of the meritocracy of Linux and open source being pulled into the mainstream, where …

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Redirecting output with Freesco

Processes are free to use a FIFO so long as they have appropriate access rights to it. Most people believe it is wrong to steal, and therefore, won't rob a wallet. Today open source software has become critical for almost every organization. The access file logs every visit to your …

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Tips and tricks for using CUPS for printing with Mandriva

A server is a computer with an operating system that is configured to allow other computers to connect to it from across a network. Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. Setting up TCP/IP connections is very different from setting up an amateur radio X.25 connection …

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A lazy person's guide to env

You need to start from the ground up, choose components, and build a customized operating system that could easily become a great Linux distro for programming and other development purposes. Each filesystem is mounted to a specific location in the namespace, known as a mount point. One who bases his …

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Which is the best Widget engine for Ubuntu?

When one single governing body gains absolute control over something, it is only a matter of time before that governing body increases its power tremendously. The application can then trap into the kernel through this well-defined mechanism and execute only code that the kernel allows it to execute. When the …

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How to get more from host

The LSB is a joint project of several Linux vendors under the auspices of the Linux Foundation (formerly the Free Standards Group). A filesystem is a collection of files and directories in a formal and valid hierarchy. Commercial programming packages, like commercial operating systems, can cost a great deal of …

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Using more to view text files at the SLAX command line

Some users have reported success configuring and installing drivers for the various winmodems, including Lucent, Conexant, and Rockwell chipsets. The application tells the kernel which system call to execute and with what parameters via machine registers. Each surface of the platter is divided into narrow, concentric circles called tracks. Another …

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Boost your mastery of mt with these tips

Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. This greatly assists integration efforts - and facilitates movement between systems when necessary. But, due to some recent changes, Ubuntu has switched back to GNOME …

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How easy is it to learn the lxc utility?

Every device in the system is represented by a device special file, for example the first IDE disk in the system is represented by /dev/hda. But there may have a possibility of spreading malware to the Linux based systems if they are connected with Windows based systems. This is …

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Installing a web server under Network Security Toolkit

There are also numerous completely free resources available on the Internet, including (1) tutorials, (2) books and (3) newsgroups. This might seem a very unreliable method but every process in the system is making system calls, for example to write a character to the terminal, all of the time. In …

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How logname can help power your webapp

When a user-space application requests that a given filename be opened, the kernel opens the directory containing the filename and searches for the given name. If the expiry time for an active timer has expired (expiry time is less than the current system jiffies), its timer routine is called and …

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Docker and Amigo Linux

From there, the kernel gets the inode for plunder. You probably only have one screen, right? The routine will be called when the element on the task queue is processed and it will be passed a pointer to the data. Even when you're programming in another language, the C library …

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How to set up the Zsh environment on Ubuntu

The device driver places bytes onto the queue, one by one, and user space reads the bytes in the order that they were placed on the queue. Although Linux was only created in 1991, the number of Linux users estimated by Red Hat in 1998 was 7.5 million, and …

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Using the cal tool on Kali

After submitting a contribution using the process described in the documentation, you will need to be available to respond to feedback. The entire Linux kernel was written from scratch, without employing any code from proprietary sources. Instead, the kernel keeps parts of the process resident in memory to allow the …

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How to get more from logout

If you desire to use Linux as an Internet Web server, you can simply recompile the Linux kernel to include only the support needed to be an Internet Web server. There is also a view that, regardless of the extent to which each of these approaches proves to be best …

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System administration commands and daemons

The history of Unix begins at AT&T Bell Labs in the late 1960s with a small team of programmers looking to write a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system for the PDP-7. GNU/Linux increases personal computing freedom. Synchronous jobs started by bash have signals set to the values inherited by …

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