Scan the results of parameter expansion

The new vm_area_struct structure is put into the list of vm_area_struct pointed at by the shmid_ds. Some such devices are partionable, which means that they can be divided up into multiple filesystems, all of which can be manipulated individually. Sustainable technologies are also important, and the best example of the …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Minimize speed when using your first character limit

Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. Another type of open source license is the artistic license, which ensures that the source code of the program is freely available yet allows the original author …

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Getting a mail server up and running on Xubuntu

In addition to steadfast stalwarts like Fortran and C/C++, many scripting and other computer languages are at home on (or were even designed to work best with) Linux. The Linux kernel must be able to interact with them in standard ways. It is the scheduler that must select the …

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Is Algol the best programming language for Linux?

The character % introduces a job name. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. Both are very different from proprietary software (also commonly called commercial software), which is software that is controlled by a company or an individual. Source code …

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No more mistakes with dnssec-keygen

If the name doesn't give it away, Linux containers, a method of packaging and isolating an application with only its dependencies, are a technology built from key pieces of the Linux kernel. Still, this survey does compare Windows 2000, GNU/Linux (up to 497 days usually), FreeBSD, and several other …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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At the command line with gdb

Windows implementation is very high-level. In the event of a total implosion, much of the software can be reinstalled with batch files made up of multiple sudo apt install statements. Ask ten people on the street what a "blue screen of death" is or if their Windows PC has ever …

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Principles of git-series under Linux

First of all the DMA controller knows nothing of virtual memory, it only has access to the physical memory in the system. If they will then it removes the sem_queue data structure from the operations pending list and applies the semaphore operations to the semaphore array. Institutions that rely solely …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Getting up and running with KDE Plasma

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. Unlike the MINIX filesystem before it, ext could address up to 2GB of storage and handle 255-character …

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Editing with vi and dnssec-keygen

This might be a bit of a controversial statement, but I've not seen any Linux GUIs that are quite as good as Windows. In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie wrote, "The C Programming Language," a book that is today as it was 20 years ago: THE book on C programming. Like …

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The key to success with mdu

Linux and other open source projects built on top of it have helped to drive the a standardization of IT, allowing for more interoperability across the world's business environment. Many of the devices you own probably, such as Android phones, digital storage devices, personal video recorders, cameras, wearables, and more …

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Answered - your most burning xargs questions

Dynamically loading code as it is needed is attractive as it keeps the kernel size to a minimum and makes the kernel very flexible. For DOS formatted disks, those formatted by fdisk, there are four primary disk partitions. Linux is that power. The originator of the request, the client, creates …

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How setquota can help power your webapp

When provided with a relative pathname, the kernel begins the pathname resolution in the current working directory. Linux systems always have a root filesystem. I've been in Free Software for a few years now and learned a ton from it. Modularity is common in nature, and its application to man-made …

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Boost your mastery of hostid with these tips

Critical mass will be reached when people are given a CD that they can install just as easily as Windows and will provide them with all the tools that they are accustomed to on that platform - mostly this means a Microsoft Office equivalent. If, however, that company transitions to Linux …

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Generating use cases for Haskell

There are various other shell interpreters available, such as Korn shell, C shell and more. The first method is most often the easiest, as long as your system UEFI boot manager allows you to disable the secure boot feature. For the operating system to accomplish this, it must contain the …

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How to automate numactl

Newbies can directly cat crontab file to see the syntax in case they forget it. The API merely defines the interface; the piece of software that actually provides the API is known as the implementation of the API. There are editors, compilers and interpreters for nearly every language ever created …

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Are you making these mistakes with esddsp

A security breach unnoticed by the vendor can easily be exploited by the wrong person. That aside, FIFOs are handled almost exactly the same way as pipes and they use the same data structures and operations. Although there are numerous distributions available, most of the older, well-known distributions are good …

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Understanding the fundamentals of xfsdump

The code is supplied on CDROMs or other media with the executable program and/or it is made available for downloading from the Internet. For example, software that can be freely modified but that does not have the same strict requirements for redistribution as the GPL is also considered open …

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Using vi/vim rather than emacs

While early drones relied on proprietary operating systems, the boom in drone flight is helped onward by Linux, which provides the tiny embedded operating systems necessary to run many of these devices while allowing for more innovation on top of it. Businesses, educational institutions, governmental agencies and other organizations around …

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Get the most out of Slackware

Written originally for the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) family of PDP microcomputers, this most popular of multi-user, general-purpose operating systems has taken over roles in all areas of computing -- even those once held by mainframes. Although, there's no rocket science in it. Because of the rarity of malware threats, there …

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What's your favourite Instant messenger

The IP protocol is a transport layer that is used by other protocols to carry their data. One interesting feature it has is that every instruction is conditional. This collaboration among several developers with a common need speeds up software creation, and when bugs in the software are found by …

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Generating use cases for C Sharp

All Unix versions and workalikes, including Linux, communciate between devices (computers, printers, cash registers, etc) using TCP/IP. Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. As both communities have matured over the past decade …

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How to set up the Delphi environment on Ubuntu

The instructions executed by the processor are very simple; for example ``read the contents of memory at location X into register Y'. The target host that owns the IP address, responds with an ARP reply that contains its physical hardware address. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh …

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At the command line with tcpdump

The API user (generally, the higher-level software) has zero input into the API and its implementation. The file position starts at zero; it cannot be negative. Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. (Even of the large corporately-funded developer base, many have …

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What's your favourite Widget engine

There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software that lots of people want to use as trying to prevent the usage of said software? Most shells offer a similar set of internal commands, but …

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Interesting apps based on make

The exact wording of a recipe as it is written by its author is protected under copyright law, but the information itself (i.e., the names of the ingredients, their quantities and the various steps in their processing) is not. Even so, if a process executes until it waits then …

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How to automate ltrace

Mostly Linux kernel modules are device drivers, pseudo-device drivers such as network drivers, or file-systems. The IP protocol layer itself uses many different physical media to transport IP packets to other IP hosts. Software and other creative works enter the public domain only if the author deliberately surrenders the copyright …

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How to set up the Python environment on Ubuntu

A mechanism is needed whereby activities can be scheduled to run at some relatively precise time. The registered protocol operations are kept in the pops vector, a vector of pointers to proto_ops data structures. This showcased not only how the Linux community works together to handle critical software security threats …

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Focus on the outcome when using cdparanoia

This hides the underlying differences from the generic system calls which read and write to ordinary files. It was a failure. When it boots, it automati- cally looks for a GRUB 2 bootloader image file named grubx64.efi, also in the uefi folder on the system. Windows 10 is perhaps …

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A simple guide to ld

The saved uid stores the original effective uid; its value is used in deciding what effective uid values the user may switch to. The installation and setup process of this Linux distro for programmers is almost just like Fedora. The address bus specifies the memory locations (addresses) for the data …

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Quick and easy fixes using mkisofs

It will even automatically look for requests for missing or non-existent web pages, known as 404s. Most of the servers that hold the entire internet are Linux-based for many reasons that will not be listed here. The access file logs every visit to your web site. The shell program is …

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Acceptable parameters when the widget resource matters

Closed source software can be distributed for free or for a cost; either way, the source code for the software is unavailable from the original developers. In Linux, no further organization or formatting is specified for a file. Until Linux came along it was either Windows or Macintosh - take it …

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Can a distro make the difference?

At that time a new generation of computers with proprietary operating systems was introduced, and their vendors required that users sign non-disclosure statements in order to obtain copies of the operating systems. Software running on the CPU must be able to read and write those controlling registers. (To be a …

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How to restart a network in Arch

Open Source software, like its name suggests, provides users with an open code that can be freely used, modified, and shared by everyone. The so-called open source and free software development models started with the Free Software Foundation and were popularized with Linux. Each filesystem is mounted to a specific …

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Understanding the character limit game

They come in multiple varieties, including the Unix domain socket, which is the form of socket used for communication within the local machine. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The bss section was conceived solely as an optimization for this purpose. Unix systems, however, are dynamic …

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Never mess with domainname and here's the reason why

As a result of this restriction, artistic licenses are rarely used because many developers do not want to work on potentially futile projects. So, you can focus on the development work and leave other worries aside. The CPU can access both the system space memory and the I/O space …

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