What's your favourite Widget engine

There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software that lots of people want to use as trying to prevent the usage of said software? Most shells offer a similar set of internal commands, but …

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Interesting apps based on make

The exact wording of a recipe as it is written by its author is protected under copyright law, but the information itself (i.e., the names of the ingredients, their quantities and the various steps in their processing) is not. Even so, if a process executes until it waits then …

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How to automate ltrace

Mostly Linux kernel modules are device drivers, pseudo-device drivers such as network drivers, or file-systems. The IP protocol layer itself uses many different physical media to transport IP packets to other IP hosts. Software and other creative works enter the public domain only if the author deliberately surrenders the copyright …

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How to set up the Python environment on Ubuntu

A mechanism is needed whereby activities can be scheduled to run at some relatively precise time. The registered protocol operations are kept in the pops vector, a vector of pointers to proto_ops data structures. This showcased not only how the Linux community works together to handle critical software security threats …

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Focus on the outcome when using cdparanoia

This hides the underlying differences from the generic system calls which read and write to ordinary files. It was a failure. When it boots, it automati- cally looks for a GRUB 2 bootloader image file named grubx64.efi, also in the uefi folder on the system. Windows 10 is perhaps …

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A simple guide to ld

The saved uid stores the original effective uid; its value is used in deciding what effective uid values the user may switch to. The installation and setup process of this Linux distro for programmers is almost just like Fedora. The address bus specifies the memory locations (addresses) for the data …

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Quick and easy fixes using mkisofs

It will even automatically look for requests for missing or non-existent web pages, known as 404s. Most of the servers that hold the entire internet are Linux-based for many reasons that will not be listed here. The access file logs every visit to your web site. The shell program is …

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Acceptable parameters when the widget resource matters

Closed source software can be distributed for free or for a cost; either way, the source code for the software is unavailable from the original developers. In Linux, no further organization or formatting is specified for a file. Until Linux came along it was either Windows or Macintosh - take it …

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Can a distro make the difference?

At that time a new generation of computers with proprietary operating systems was introduced, and their vendors required that users sign non-disclosure statements in order to obtain copies of the operating systems. Software running on the CPU must be able to read and write those controlling registers. (To be a …

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How to restart a network in Arch

Open Source software, like its name suggests, provides users with an open code that can be freely used, modified, and shared by everyone. The so-called open source and free software development models started with the Free Software Foundation and were popularized with Linux. Each filesystem is mounted to a specific …

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Understanding the character limit game

They come in multiple varieties, including the Unix domain socket, which is the form of socket used for communication within the local machine. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The bss section was conceived solely as an optimization for this purpose. Unix systems, however, are dynamic …

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Never mess with domainname and here's the reason why

As a result of this restriction, artistic licenses are rarely used because many developers do not want to work on potentially futile projects. So, you can focus on the development work and leave other worries aside. The CPU can access both the system space memory and the I/O space …

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Really small Python script

The price for a Windows license amounts to an average of one fourth of each new computer's price. Many of the devices you own probably, such as Android phones, digital storage devices, personal video recorders, cameras, wearables, and more, also run Linux. Linux systems always have a root filesystem. Again …

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Never mess with mtr and here's the reason why

(See "Shell Built-in Commands.") Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behavior. This led to the development of the free software movement by Richard Stallman. If a parent process terminates before its child, the kernel will reparent the child to the init process. The price for …

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At the Linux terminal with systemtap

The text section contains executable code and read-only data, such as constant variables, and is typically marked read-only and executable. At the same time, many executives have a crude interpretation of its value to corporations?"It's free, and therefore it's cheap." Slowly, that mentality is changing, but it's still true …

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Virtual filesystems in VectorLinux - how do they work?

Block devices are accessed via the buffer cache and may be randomly accessed, that is to say, any block can be read or written no matter where it is on the device. Among the easiest to try at first are the text editors, word processors, image viewers, calculators and games …

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What is the subhierarchy of an application

Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. You can easily see the exported kernel symbols and their values by looking at /proc/ksyms or by using the ksyms utility. Traditionally, Unix programs have been single-threaded, owing to Unix's historic simplicity, fast process creation times, and robust IPC mechanisms …

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Job control under Freespire

For some small business leaders I've consulted, the human factor is either a notion to be rejected or ignored. For most users, LILO works best. Kerneld is just an agent of the kernel, scheduling work on its behalf. Not often are our basic rights thought of in the context of …

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At the Linux terminal with less

Its latest releases often inspire the other Linux distributions to adopt new features and make changes. By then, much of the GNU operating system had been completed, with the notable exception of a kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system). The entire Linux kernel was written from scratch …

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How much do you know about the Linux mmv command?

You can also press the C key at any time to enter an interactive shell mode, allowing you to submit commands on the fly. Businesses, with no faith in their ability to succeed with Open Source, would resort to writing proprietary software that can be sold on a shelf. The …

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Getting acquainted with MeeGo

Time enough for a soapbox. It could be argued that its smaller number of vulnerabilities is because of its rarer deployment, but the simplest explanation is that OpenBSD has focused strongly on security - and achieved it better than the rest. The BSD socket layer calls the INET layer socket support …

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Background information on vidmode

Installation can take a while, depending on the speed of the computer and the options selected. Apart from the ability of a loaded module to crash the operating system by being badly written, it presents another danger. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. If your memory is like mine …

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The key to success with objdump

If it does not exist, it will allocate a physical page and create a page table entry for it. This means that, when the next module is loaded, it has access to the services of the already loaded modules. The shell executes the specified interpreter on operating systems that do …

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Is Cinnamon the best windows manager for Linux?

You can do almost anything with it, including software installation, application and server configurations, file system management and much more. Think about other software you use everyday that is proprietary and apply the fact that you can't be sure what it is actually doing! Networking the critical aspects of a …

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Here's what no-one tells you about objcopy

There are no set boundaries or any limitations. The visibility and easy access to the source code, which I mentioned earlier, can also be a double-edged sword as bad-intentioned people can find vulnerabilities and leave backdoors for future exploits. Processes begin life as executable object code, which is machine-runnable code …

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How to automate git-series

Every process except the first has a parent. So, if the operation value is 2, then -2 is added to the adjustment entry for this semaphore. It is as old as computers themselves. What does this mean to you?

At the Linux terminal with Firejail

They should not be held …

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Learn mesg to further your career

Each device driver tells the operating system how to use that specific device. The process tree is rooted at the first process, known as the init process, which is typically the init program. By and throughout the 1990s, you could find MINIX installations thriving in universities worldwide-and a young Linus …

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Can you install BioKnoppix on the Rasberry Pi?

In commercial UNIX development houses, the entire system is developed with a rigorous policy of quality assurance, source and revision control systems, documentation, and bug reporting and resolution. This was the beginning of techniques such as license keys. This is true even if the device is a modem being used …

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Turn on assembly listings

From the filename, the kernel obtains the inode number. The command cd may be run without a location as we saw in the shortcut above but usually will be run with a single command line argument which is the location we would like to change into. A block device cannot …

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Getting started with the Linux uudecode command

But Unix has a much richer history beyond those bearded C programmers from the 1970s. By the time I was done, I had actually forgotten how to use my old piece of proprietary garbageware. But all of this would likely not be possible without the real-time functionality of the Linux …

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Succeed with atrm on Linux

Whereas pwd is just run by itself with no arguments, ls is a little more powerful. If this execution fails because the file is not in executable format, and the file is not a directory, it is assumed to be a shell script, a file containing shell commands. They are …

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How to install mknod on Suse

In this way, the Internet acts as the glue that binds together Linux developers in particular and OSS developers in general. Built in to the structure of the command-line environment are dozens of commands and several text-based help systems. Now, imagine that the execution of all the above commands is …

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What's the purpose of the GPG-KEY file?

To make sure that even in a dual boot scenario office staff do not cling to their past desktop but acclimate quickly to the new desktop simply requires a "conversion plan." All of the employees know they will have a dual boot system that is fully functional for the first …

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Creating a SPEAKUP_DOCS.TXT file for your distro

Interestingly, the ability of bash scripting is also one of the most compelling reasons why programmers prefer using Linux OS. Linux has two types of system timers, both queue routines to be called at some system time but they are slightly different in their implementations. Most open source Internet tools …

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Getting acquainted with Fuduntu

Of course, most system calls have only a couple of parameters. So now you are probably starting to see that we can refer to a location in a variety of different ways. The saved uid stores the original effective uid; its value is used in deciding what effective uid values …

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Running nfsd inside a docker image

Because Linux has such a large number of contributors from across multiple decades of development, contacting each individual author and getting them to agree to a new license is virtually impossible, so that Linux remaining licensed under the GPLv2 in perpetuity is all but assured. Linux tracks the usage of …

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Are you making these mistakes with for

The issues with the Diebold [2] voting systems in the US is testament [3] to the need for transparent systems that are trustworthy. In the above example, the vfat and msdos modules are both dependent on the fat module and so it has a count of 2. For Linux, a …

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Its all about openvt

Where does the bash fit in? The keyboard, mouse and serial ports are controlled by a SuperIO chip, the IDE disks by an IDE controller, SCSI disks by a SCSI controller and so on. Linux is believed to comply with POSIX.1 and SUSv3, but as no official POSIX or …

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