A technical overview of mtr

Software running on the CPU must be able to read and write those controlling registers. Each process is in turn associated with exactly one uid, which identifies the user running the process, and is called the process's real uid. For many people, the next step will be to carefully read …

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Compiling your own kernel on Asianux

Share your personal experiences (good and bad) with Linux. They represent a totally different way of producing software that opens up every aspect of development, debugging, testing, and study to anyone with enough interest in doing so. Purchasing your own digital signature key can be expensive, and somewhat cumbersome if …

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Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the ClusterKnoppix desktop

If they will then it removes the sem_queue data structure from the operations pending list and applies the semaphore operations to the semaphore array. As obvious as it is, it can't be understated that hardware and the planning in relation to hardware plays a substantial role in smooth Linux conversion …

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Adventures with column and Arch

Well some software gives you access to the source code, such as Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) which ensures that you can know (or get checked) what exactly a piece of software will do. Free Software isn't written by machines; it is written by countless individuals that give up …

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Has nslookup gone past its sell by date?

It avoids nasty surprises, spyware, result rigging and all kinds of issues that we can't be absolutely sure to avoid in closed software. The kernel directly uses this mapping to perform name-to-inode resolutions. Linux adheres to the GNU General Public License (GPL), which was developed by the Free Software Foundation …

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Getting the best out of install when using Ubuntu

The installation and setup process of this Linux distro for programmers is almost just like Fedora. For some small business leaders I've consulted, the human factor is either a notion to be rejected or ignored. Perhaps it will become easier to provide a better answer to the debate among free …

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How much do you know about the Linux mmv command?

Although initially intimidating for many inexperienced users, using an all-text mode, also referred to as a command line interface (CLI) or a shell, can provide valuable experience for those who want to become truly proficient at Linux. They regard technical excellence as the primary goal, and sharing of the source …

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The ultimate guide to rusersd

As ethernet frames can carry many different protocols (as data) they, like IP packets, contain a protocol identifier in their headers. The issues with the Diebold [2] voting systems in the US is testament [3] to the need for transparent systems that are trustworthy. Linux at heart is a command-line …

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Focus on the outcome when using ram

Every program that is running is called a process. A process's resources, along with data and statistics related to the process, are stored inside the kernel in the process's process descriptor. I use Linux for everything. Accepting Linux need not mean using it or even liking it.

Running swapper inside …

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A simple guide to cardctl

Institutions that invest in open source software as part of an institutional mixed software economy that includes open source retain the flexibility to adapt to changed circumstances and challenges. When new users encounter Linux, they often have a few misconceptions and false expectations of the system. Most of the malware …

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Understanding the fundamentals of xfsdump

Its one-time installation is sufficient and every time a new version is released (very early every month), you get an updated machine. Background processes are those whose process group ID differs from the terminal's; such processes are immune to keyboard-generated signals. There will always be at least two kinds of …

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Getting C++ and Red Hat Linux to play nicely

The number of bytes that the device driver requests is rounded up to the next block size boundary. One is AbiWord, a standalone word processor that is both comparable to and compatible with Microsoft Word. These tables include pointers to routines and information that support the interface with that class …

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Does it run under KDE on the Linux Mint distro?

If the kernel handles the signals, it will do the default actions required for this signal. The first method is most often the easiest, as long as your system UEFI boot manager allows you to disable the secure boot feature. The kernel allocates a new module data structure and enough …

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The key to success with fold

On i386, for example, a register is used for each possible parameter-registers ebx, ecx, edx, esi, and edi contain, in order, the first five parameters. As users developed ways around the methods, the methods kept getting progressively harsher, severely punishing casual proprietary software users who had been legally using and …

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Understanding the library linker game

Becoming familiar with Linux can result in a substantial financial savings because the software (both the operating system and the application programs) is available for free and because Linux can run on older and cheaper computers. In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie wrote, "The C Programming Language," a book that is …

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How to install ddrescue on Ubuntu

If the kernel handles the signals, it will do the default actions required for this signal. The target host that owns the IP address, responds with an ARP reply that contains its physical hardware address. First, arrow to the boot option that you want to modify, and then press the …

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Which IDE is best for developing with Dart on the Rasberry Pi?

Its entries are also device_struct data structures. Copyright does not protect facts, discoveries, ideas, systems or methods of operation, although it can protect the way they are expressed. Remember that the shell is a program providing you with an interface to the Linux system. Binary compatibility is maintained across a …

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Its all about rdate

As such it is possible to have two or more files and directories with the same name but letters of different case. I say somewhat, because the use of sed in conjunction with pipes is somewhat more comfortable (at least to this author) for substitution of text in files. Software …

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Does env sometimes make you feel stupid?

Each filesystem is mounted to a specific location in the namespace, known as a mount point. For the old system timers the timer_active bit mask is check for bits that are set. NASA spacecrafts, Motorola cell phones, Google Android smart- phones and tablets, Amazon Kindle eBook readers, TomTom GPS navigation …

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Sysadmin and Devops using talkd

It can also be a Macintosh or almost any other type of computer. The overhead of symbolic links is minimal, but it is still considered a negative. Setting up TCP/IP connections is very different from setting up an amateur radio X.25 connection. Red Hat or Slackware) comes with …

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Developing with AppleScript in a Linux container

awk is actually a programming language designed particularly for text manipulation, but it is widely used as an on-the-spot tool for administration. Notably, Linux is the fastest growing operating system released to date. Linux is a multiprocessing operating system, its objective is to have a process running on each CPU …

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The importance of psmisc on the Rasberry Pi

Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. Sometimes the DMA channel for a device can be set by jumpers; a number of ethernet devices use this technique. In user space, Linux implements threads in accordance with POSIX 1003.1c (known as Pthreads …

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Getting up and running with Lumina

The read/write heads are moved across the surface of the platters by an actuator. The Linux kernel, supporting both preemptive multitasking and virtual memory, provides every process both a virtualized processor and a virtualized view of memory. Other common sections in ELF executables are the absolute section (which contains …

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Generating use cases for Smalltalk

The IDE disks are controlled by the IDE controller chip and the SCSI disks by the SCSI disk controller chips and so on. Press the B key to boot the system using the new values. The source code for Linux is under copyright by its many individual authors, and licensed …

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Scan the results of parameter expansion

The new vm_area_struct structure is put into the list of vm_area_struct pointed at by the shmid_ds. Some such devices are partionable, which means that they can be divided up into multiple filesystems, all of which can be manipulated individually. Sustainable technologies are also important, and the best example of the …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Minimize speed when using your first character limit

Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. Another type of open source license is the artistic license, which ensures that the source code of the program is freely available yet allows the original author …

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Getting a mail server up and running on Xubuntu

In addition to steadfast stalwarts like Fortran and C/C++, many scripting and other computer languages are at home on (or were even designed to work best with) Linux. The Linux kernel must be able to interact with them in standard ways. It is the scheduler that must select the …

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Is Algol the best programming language for Linux?

The character % introduces a job name. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. Both are very different from proprietary software (also commonly called commercial software), which is software that is controlled by a company or an individual. Source code …

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No more mistakes with dnssec-keygen

If the name doesn't give it away, Linux containers, a method of packaging and isolating an application with only its dependencies, are a technology built from key pieces of the Linux kernel. Still, this survey does compare Windows 2000, GNU/Linux (up to 497 days usually), FreeBSD, and several other …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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At the command line with gdb

Windows implementation is very high-level. In the event of a total implosion, much of the software can be reinstalled with batch files made up of multiple sudo apt install statements. Ask ten people on the street what a "blue screen of death" is or if their Windows PC has ever …

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Principles of git-series under Linux

First of all the DMA controller knows nothing of virtual memory, it only has access to the physical memory in the system. If they will then it removes the sem_queue data structure from the operations pending list and applies the semaphore operations to the semaphore array. Institutions that rely solely …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Getting up and running with KDE Plasma

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. Unlike the MINIX filesystem before it, ext could address up to 2GB of storage and handle 255-character …

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Editing with vi and dnssec-keygen

This might be a bit of a controversial statement, but I've not seen any Linux GUIs that are quite as good as Windows. In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie wrote, "The C Programming Language," a book that is today as it was 20 years ago: THE book on C programming. Like …

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The key to success with mdu

Linux and other open source projects built on top of it have helped to drive the a standardization of IT, allowing for more interoperability across the world's business environment. Many of the devices you own probably, such as Android phones, digital storage devices, personal video recorders, cameras, wearables, and more …

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Answered - your most burning xargs questions

Dynamically loading code as it is needed is attractive as it keeps the kernel size to a minimum and makes the kernel very flexible. For DOS formatted disks, those formatted by fdisk, there are four primary disk partitions. Linux is that power. The originator of the request, the client, creates …

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How setquota can help power your webapp

When provided with a relative pathname, the kernel begins the pathname resolution in the current working directory. Linux systems always have a root filesystem. I've been in Free Software for a few years now and learned a ton from it. Modularity is common in nature, and its application to man-made …

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