A technical overview of mtr

Software running on the CPU must be able to read and write those controlling registers. Each process is in turn associated with exactly one uid, which identifies the user running the process, and is called the process's real uid. For many people, the next step will be to carefully read …

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Compiling your own kernel on Asianux

Share your personal experiences (good and bad) with Linux. They represent a totally different way of producing software that opens up every aspect of development, debugging, testing, and study to anyone with enough interest in doing so. Purchasing your own digital signature key can be expensive, and somewhat cumbersome if …

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Learn how I improved tcpd in two days

There is yet one other weakness: if a computer switches operating systems later, the long uptime is credited to the new OS. Imagine if you wanted to become a great writer but weren't allowed to read any books. In general, there is a tendency for advocates of the term term …

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How to set up the C++ environment on Ubuntu

What interesting system calls are provided in Linux compared to other Unix variants? One of the ideas behind Open Source software is that users can be co-developers, suggesting how to improve it and helping to find out bugs. Traditionally, Unix programs have been single-threaded, owing to Unix's historic simplicity, fast …

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No more mistakes with sudo

In addition, gcc and g++_ implement extensions to the C and C++ languages. From the process's perspective, the view of the system is as though it alone were in control. Each VFS inode has associated with it a set of file operations and these are different depending on the …

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Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the ClusterKnoppix desktop

If they will then it removes the sem_queue data structure from the operations pending list and applies the semaphore operations to the semaphore array. As obvious as it is, it can't be understated that hardware and the planning in relation to hardware plays a substantial role in smooth Linux conversion …

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Getting the best out of env when using Ubuntu

The mini-bootloader acts as a middleman in the boot process. If you hit Tab again it will show you those possibilities. Even if you are an aged UNIX guru, what follows is probably of interest to you. If a match is found, that builtin is invoked.

A lazy person's guide …

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How exercise helps arthritis

When you suffer from pain and stiffness on a daily basis, exercise might be the last thing you feel like doing. However, exercise should be an important part of everyone’s daily life, especially if you have arthritis, because being inactive increases your risk of being overweight and developing heart …

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Information about Google Analytics

Organic/SEO traffic: This report shows what your SEO traffic was for a time period. It's important to watch trends happening with this. Look as far back to the same time period as last year and see whether there are any seasonality trends or increases/decreases from year to year …

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Redirection of output

The most common disks used in Linux systems today are Integrated Disk Electronic or IDE disks. This is because IP addresses are simply an addressing concept, the ethernet devices themselves have their own physical addresses. The LSB extends POSIX and SUS, and adds several standards of its own; it attempts …

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Adventures with column and Arch

Well some software gives you access to the source code, such as Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) which ensures that you can know (or get checked) what exactly a piece of software will do. Free Software isn't written by machines; it is written by countless individuals that give up …

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How easy is it to run ntpd on a Rasberry Pi?

Everything a good programmer can wish for is available: compilers, libraries, development and debugging tools. I use Linux for everything. Almost certainly, but it's doubtful that it would maintain the presence that Android currently enjoys in today's consumer market. Usually, as bytes in the file are read from or written …

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Using screen on Kali Linux

A process that has terminated, but has not yet been waited upon, is called a zombie. The data bus holds the data transfered. The instructions have to be fetched from memory as they are executed. There is no single organization responsible for developing the system.

Is ntpd better on FreeBSD …

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Running sendmail inside a docker image

When the request is made, it is up to the IDE subsystem to work out which IDE disk the request is for. The ARPANET pioneered networking concepts such as packet switching and protocol layering where one protocol uses the services of another. They can be unlinked from the kernel and …

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Minimize speed when using your first file modifier

When I have unmounted the VFAT partition the system detects that I no longer need the VFAT file system module and removes it from the system. If no output_file is supplied, output goes to stdout. The INET socket layer supports the internet address family which contains the TCP/IP protocols …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

It would not be enough to stop here, though. OSS is developed by those people who have a use for it. TCP/IP is so entrenched that Windows implemented it. Shell scripts are not unlike Windows batch files for controlling the system, but a lot more powerful.

Learn how I …

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Can you get LXDE to work on your own distro?

Why make it easier for them. Linux supports three types of hardware device: character, block and network. For Linux, a vendor can create a device driver for a specific hardware device and expect that, within reason, it will operate across most distributions. They should be given the opportunity to examine …

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Has nslookup gone past its sell by date?

It avoids nasty surprises, spyware, result rigging and all kinds of issues that we can't be absolutely sure to avoid in closed software. The kernel directly uses this mapping to perform name-to-inode resolutions. Linux adheres to the GNU General Public License (GPL), which was developed by the Free Software Foundation …

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Getting your Terminal emulator up and running on Linux

Its latest releases often inspire the other Linux distributions to adopt new features and make changes. Any site that is requested through the "what's that site running" query form at Netcraft.com is added to the set of sites that are routinely sampled; Netcraft doesn't routinely monitor all 22 million …

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What are your thoughts on the new Kali Linux distribution?

and insert it as the first line of your script. Some people, particularly members of the Free Software Foundation, refer to this collection as GNU/Linux, because many of the tools included are GNU components. These categories determine what powers are available to a user. Unlike Windows, Linux requires each …

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Getting the best out of install when using Ubuntu

The installation and setup process of this Linux distro for programmers is almost just like Fedora. For some small business leaders I've consulted, the human factor is either a notion to be rejected or ignored. Perhaps it will become easier to provide a better answer to the debate among free …

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Watch YouTube videos at the PocketLinux terminal

This software universe had been going on behind my back for years. These common interfaces mean that the kernel can treat often very different devices and their device drivers absolutely the same. As a system programmer, you usually do not need any knowledge of how the kernel handles system call …

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How much do you know about the Linux mmv command?

Although initially intimidating for many inexperienced users, using an all-text mode, also referred to as a command line interface (CLI) or a shell, can provide valuable experience for those who want to become truly proficient at Linux. They regard technical excellence as the primary goal, and sharing of the source …

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Configuring swapper in easy steps

Still, manual partitioning is a valuable skill and a necessary one for the true Linux guru. It is time for the opening of the tools that will be needed to build this new age. Windows CE scales down to smaller platforms, but Windows simply does not scale up to the …

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Create your own video streaming server with VectorLinux

Getting involved with kernel development is, paradoxically, both easier than it seems like it should be, and also ridiculously difficult. These unique addresses are built into each ethernet device when they are manufactured and it is usually kept in an SROM2 on the ethernet card. Different distributions have chosen varying …

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Linux adventures with tar

When job control is not in effect, background jobs (jobs started with &) ignore SIGINT and SIGQUIT. The examples continue, but all hit the same chord: there is no use in preventing the spread of information. It is a synthasisable core and ARM (the company) does not itself manufacture processors. Sed …

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Interesting apps based on ranlib

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. A regular file contains bytes of data, organized into a linear array called a byte stream. As …

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Old school Linux with the shutdown utility

An inode stores metadata associated with a file, such as its modification timestamp, owner, type, length, and the location of the file's data-but no filename! Sed, as you saw in our example, is basically used for altering a text file without actually having to open it up in a traditional …

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Can you pass the chfn test?

You might be amazed that such a nonstructured system of volunteers, programming and debugging a complete UNIX system, could get anything done at all. The first way is to use the insmod command to manually insert the it into the kernel. There is also a devout following of Linux. It's …

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The ultimate guide to rusersd

As ethernet frames can carry many different protocols (as data) they, like IP packets, contain a protocol identifier in their headers. The issues with the Diebold [2] voting systems in the US is testament [3] to the need for transparent systems that are trustworthy. Linux at heart is a command-line …

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Getting acquainted with Mandriva Linux

So, /dev/hda2, the second partition of the primary IDE disk has a major number of 3 and a minor number of 2. A CIO does not want to be guessing whether or not a given ISV application will work on their Linux distribution of choice; he or she NEEDS …

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Is Gnome the best windows manager for Linux?

For some small business leaders I've consulted, the human factor is either a notion to be rejected or ignored. Consequently, nowadays gcc is used as the generic name for the family of GNU compilers. First is the Human Factor, which includes the psychological issues with change, any kind of change …

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Focus on the outcome when using ping

In this article we will introduce you to why these accounts are important. Whenever a process has to wait the operating system takes the CPU away from that process and gives it to another, more deserving process. If you love the rolling Linux distributions (here are some fixed vs rolling …

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Focus on the outcome when using ram

Every program that is running is called a process. A process's resources, along with data and statistics related to the process, are stored inside the kernel in the process's process descriptor. I use Linux for everything. Accepting Linux need not mean using it or even liking it.

Running swapper inside …

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A simple guide to cardctl

Institutions that invest in open source software as part of an institutional mixed software economy that includes open source retain the flexibility to adapt to changed circumstances and challenges. When new users encounter Linux, they often have a few misconceptions and false expectations of the system. Most of the malware …

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Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the PHLAK desktop

However, Linux does not require the use of such Anti-Virus programs. The kernel modules are linked object files just like other programs in the system except that they are linked as a relocatable images. For many people, the next step will be to carefully read a good introductory book on …

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Open the gates for rlogin

These extensions are collectively called GNU C, and are documented in Appendix A. It is also an excellent platform for working systems, both open and closed, because it is so heavily customizable for free. The controllers are processors like the CPU itself, they can be viewed as intelligent helpers to …

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Here's what no-one tells you about test

None other than the system call handler! The shell program is what presents the prompt and accepts subsequent commands. If you want to use Linux as a platform for a very advanced application or application set, you will be interested in aspects of the system such as kernel hacking, the …

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Quick and easy fixes using modprobe

The software that handles or manages a hardware controller is known as a device driver. The platters are attached to a central spindle and spin at a constant speed that can vary between 3000 and 10,000 RPM depending on the model. We can access the database from other programs …

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