Getting acquainted with Miracle Linux

The module data structure is marked as DELETED and it is unlinked from the list of kernel modules. Most licenses of the proprietary software systems are expensive and should be renewed every year. These range from simple memory protection schemes to complex page hierarchies. You don't need to spend tons …

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Getting the best out of atq when using Ubuntu

Therefore Linux adds a call to a tidy up routine which will restore the original blocked mask onto the call stack of the signalled process. If your computer came with a copy of Windows, then you paid for it, even if the store didn't tell you about that. This credit-card …

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Is Algol the best programming language for Linux?

The character % introduces a job name. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. Both are very different from proprietary software (also commonly called commercial software), which is software that is controlled by a company or an individual. Source code …

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No more mistakes with dnssec-keygen

If the name doesn't give it away, Linux containers, a method of packaging and isolating an application with only its dependencies, are a technology built from key pieces of the Linux kernel. Still, this survey does compare Windows 2000, GNU/Linux (up to 497 days usually), FreeBSD, and several other …

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Configuration via the terminal

Workspaces is a feature I would never trade for anything else. Not only you earn more capabilities as a developer, you also learn (sometimes the hard way) how to solve issues, monitor your machine for potential problems, configure different components and more. Putting morals before convenience and ease may be …

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Editing with vi and esdcat

Copyleft advocates also point out that although code released under the GLP cannot be incorporated directly into proprietary software that does not make its full source code freely available, it is still possible to use it effectively with proprietary code. If the substring matches more than one job, bash reports …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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At the command line with gdb

Windows implementation is very high-level. In the event of a total implosion, much of the software can be reinstalled with batch files made up of multiple sudo apt install statements. Ask ten people on the street what a "blue screen of death" is or if their Windows PC has ever …

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Answered - your most burning quotaon questions

You may have already noticed that in order to execute shell script the file needs to be made executable by use of chmod +x FILENAME command. The kernel calls the modules initialization routine and, if it is successful it carries on installing the module. The g++ C++ compiler is ISO …

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A technical overview of passwd

Many times, it does this in order to avoid vice, but counterintuitively, only ends up creating more of it in the process. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. This subshell reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as …

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Generating use cases for Objective-C

Note that HP-UX, GNU/Linux (usually), Solaris and recent releases of FreeBSD cycle back to zero after 497 days, exactly as if the machine had been rebooted at that precise point. Each hardware controller has its own control and status registers (CSRs) and these differ between devices. The reason is …

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What's your favorite Linux terminal emulator?

This makes kernel memory deallocation easier as the smaller free blocks can be recombined into bigger blocks. This means that the process can continue to run. There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software …

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Installing libevent

The umbrella of system programming often includes kernel development, or at least device driver writing. The Linux kernel is the core of the operating system. If user space were allowed to manipulate directories without the kernel's mediation, it would be too easy for a single simple error to corrupt the …

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Principles of git-series under Linux

First of all the DMA controller knows nothing of virtual memory, it only has access to the physical memory in the system. If they will then it removes the sem_queue data structure from the operations pending list and applies the semaphore operations to the semaphore array. Institutions that rely solely …

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The key to success with lpstat

This is especially true for large contributions, new features, or standalone code, like a driver for a specific piece of hardware. Knowledge and information are the building blocks of change. A runnable process is one which is waiting only for a CPU to run on. In addition, in the open …

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Getting up and running with LXDE

When the kernel is asked to open a pathname like this, it walks each directory entry (called a dentry inside of the kernel) in the pathname to find the inode of the next entry. At the same time, many executives have a crude interpretation of its value to corporations?"It's …

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Sick and tired of using suspend the same way?

If you're interested in writing code for the Linux kernel itself, a good place to get started is in the Kernel Newbies FAQ, which will explain some of the concepts and processes you'll want to be familiar with. This chapter describes how the Linux kernel manages the physical devices in …

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Sick and tired of using netstat the same way?

Binary compatibility is maintained across a given major version of glibc, at the very least. Does it support my critical applications? Linux aims toward POSIX and SUS compliance. Of course, most system calls have only a couple of parameters.

Getting Enlightenment to work with a dual screen monitor

This meaning …

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Which distro do you prefer to use KDE Plasma on?

Writing a byte to the middle of a file overwrites the byte previously located at that offset. Conceptually, nothing covered thus far would prevent multiple names resolving to the same inode. Without this surrounding commitment, IT decision-makers can be left in the dark...and that's not a good place to …

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Interesting apps based on ssh-keygen

Where the timers go in the timer table is statically defined (rather like the bottom half handler table bh_base). In fact, Richard Stallman wouldn't have bothered writing the GNU system if he thought his project wouldn't mean anything. In addition, in the open source world, vulnerabilities are discussed publicly, so …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Instance names should not be specified when using timeout

Unlike the MINIX filesystem before it, ext could address up to 2GB of storage and handle 255-character filenames. The size of a file is measured in bytes and is called its length. In addition, as Richard Stallman famously put it, these programs are also "free as in speech, not as …

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Listen to the radio at the Cucumber Linux command line

Open source software isn't free from cost, of course. Where in I/O space the common peripherals (IDE controller, serial port, floppy disk controller and so on) have their registers has been set by convention over the years as the PC architecture has developed. Also there is no mechanism for …

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Redirecting output with PCLinuxOS

Very small company leadership, with less than ten personnel, often incorrectly assume that interpersonal issues and technical decisions are not correlated at all. The kernel does not impose any restrictions on concurrent file access. Each command comes with a manual page which can be used to learn about its function …

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A technical overview of edquota

If you have spent a lot of time on Windows this may take a while to get used to. The source code for proprietary software is usually not made publicly available, or, if it is, there are generally severe restrictions on its use. This means that the maximum number of …

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Download via SFTP

The new module also exports symbols to the kernel and insmod builds a table of these exported images. Notably, Linux is the fastest growing operating system released to date. More importantly, Linux strives to behave in accordance with POSIX and SUS requirements. WinModems lack some basic hardware on the modem …

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Are you making these mistakes with import

Some operating systems, such as VMS, provide highly structured files, supporting concepts such as records. Linux maintains the set of registered block devices as the blkdevs vector. A process is also associated with various system resources, which are arbitrated and managed by the kernel. Its own Software Center has tons …

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A simple guide to ld

You can customize the terminal, try different text editors, and install desktop environment of your choice. The results of such concurrent accesses rely on the ordering of the individual operations, and are generally unpredictable. Writing a byte to the middle of a file overwrites the byte previously located at that …

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Acceptable parameters when the widget resource matters

To me, that is the distasteful and damaging side of the Linux world. Another difference, particularly as compared to a Windows system is that many Linux users prefer to compile their applications from source code. While Linus hacked away on the fledgling Linux kernel, Remy Card worked on the first …

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Creating a UPGRADE.TXT file for your distro

So when you're writing something in your word processor and you want to check out something on the web, no need to review all your windows to find your browser, stacked all the way behind the others. If you are not already familiar with the GNU GPL, the best way …

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Data collection under Ubuntu

The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The tools philosophy was to have small programs to accomplish a particular task instead of trying to develop large monolithic programs to do a large number of tasks. Let it suffice to say that not every single bug has been …

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Getting started with the Linux script command

It's basically community version of Red Hat without any fee or support. Thus, there is no term free mathematics. Soon enough this will become an extremely tedious task destined for failure. The caricatures speak of wizard-like "graybeards" sitting behind glowing green screens, writing C code and shell scripts, powered by …

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How to set up the C environment on Ubuntu

Each user belongs to one or more groups, including a primary or login group, listed in /etc/passwd, and possibly a number of supplemental groups, listed in /etc/group. Manipulating symbolic links, on the other hand, requires special system calls. All the documentation and manuals are there, and examples are …

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Getting up and running with KDE Plasma

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. Unlike the MINIX filesystem before it, ext could address up to 2GB of storage and handle 255-character …

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Whats the need for syslogd in this day and age?

Resources include timers, pending signals, open files, network connections, hardware, and IPC mechanisms. Originally, gcc was GNU's version of cc, the C Compiler. What would happen if ACME went out of business or stopped supporting the software due to lack of sales? Collectively the memory space that the hardware peripherals …

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Programming with C++ on Linux

Richard Stallman's stallman.org is a perfect example. This behaviour has spawned a whole new wave of viruses and is a gross breach of privacy. It will recognize a multiline header if the last character on each line but the last is a left parenthesis or comma. Much of enterprise …

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Text Processing and Manipulation

Sections are linear chunks of the object code that load into linear chunks of memory. The size of a file is measured in bytes and is called its length. Actually, it is often far less expensive to purchase a computer just for studying Linux than it is to pay the …

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Acceptable parameters when the library linker matters

The alternative is to have a micro-kernel structure where the functional pieces of the kernel are broken out into separate units with strict communication mechanisms between them. If one process crashes it will not cause another process in the system to crash. Unquoted text is assumed to be a function …

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How to install split on Suse

I am a composer, and one of the biggest hurdles for me in switching to exclusively Free Software was my sheet music typesetting software. The way that FIFOs are opened is a little different from pipes. The exact mechanism varies from architecture to architecture. Linux itself is actually just the …

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