Fall in love with pv

The first, the old timer mechanism, has a static array of 32 pointers to timer_struct data structures and a mask of active timers, timer_active. Processes can choose to ignore most of the signals that are generated, with two notable exceptions: neither the SIGSTOP signal which causes a process to halt …

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How makedbm can help power your webapp

It links the sock data structure to the BSD socket data structure using the data pointer in the BSD socket. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The advocate could further explain why one particular distro was chosen and what software came pre-packaged/easily installed that made …

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Understanding the fundamentals of quota

By calling bash executable binary explicitly, the content of our file date.sh is loaded and interpreted as Bash Shell Script. For most users, LILO works best. A block device cannot transfer or access a unit of data smaller than a sector and all I/O must occur in terms …

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How to restart a network in Arch

Open Source software, like its name suggests, provides users with an open code that can be freely used, modified, and shared by everyone. The so-called open source and free software development models started with the Free Software Foundation and were popularized with Linux. Each filesystem is mounted to a specific …

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The best Video player for the command line

A non-zero exit status indicates failure. Linux, on the other hand, builds on the Unix tradition by offering tried-and-true tools. The first IDE controller in the system is known as the primary IDE controller, the next the secondary controller and so on. This means that you cannot DMA directly into …

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Getting started with syncd on Ubuntu

You can pick up a book on Unix from the '80s and much of it will still be applicable to a modern Linux distribution today. Linux provides any tools you need as a developer to operate a scalable, secure servers. When TCP transmits its packet using IP, the data contained …

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Using sysdig on Kali Linux

Everyone has a favorite development platform. These registered port addresses can be seen in /etc/services. Another important feature of Linux is that it can run on a variety of different computer hardware platforms frequently found in different companies. The POSIX standard was born in 1988, as well as other …

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Shortcuts for nameif made easy

That is, they do not require that the source code be included with redistributions of modified versions of programs that use such licenses. Also, the lack of a common kernel within Unix distributions has implications for software and hardware vendors. Software is not some mystic magic which must be locked …

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Are you making these mistakes with cupsd

Most of the malware are propagated through the Internet. You might also wonder whether ext4 is still in active development at all, given the flurries of news coverage of alternate filesystems such as btrfs, xfs, and zfs. It is sad to see that people today actually have to use the …

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Job control under DragOnLinux

Specific filesystems, however, may impose their own restrictions, imposing a smaller ceiling on the maximum length. It is not possible to directly link user-space applications with kernel space. In many ways, Linux and UNIX administration is today much easier than administration for popular commercial personal operating systems because it is …

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Running Gnome on Pinguy OS

Linux protects against this by maintaining lists of adjustments to the semaphore arrays. There are three types of partition supported by fdisk, primary, extended and logical. The first filesystem mounted is located in the root of the namespace, /, and is called the root filesystem. It doesn't take long to realize …

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Succeed with bzdiff on Linux

Most recently, the U.S. Whereas it had previously been the norm to assist colleagues and freely share ideas and software, such cooperation suddenly became forbidden and was made a crime. But this book, like most texts on system programming, is unconcerned with kernel development. Linux is a popular platform …

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What is the subhierarchy of an application

Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. You can easily see the exported kernel symbols and their values by looking at /proc/ksyms or by using the ksyms utility. Traditionally, Unix programs have been single-threaded, owing to Unix's historic simplicity, fast process creation times, and robust IPC mechanisms …

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Automating builds using PHP on Arch Linux

After moving the Linux I've noticed a dramatic improvement in the speed and performance of my work flow, with the exact same tools I used on Windows. What does this mean to you? Each individual semaphore operation may request that an adjustment be maintained. The Free Software Movement would be …

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Unwrapping scanimage

Without this surrounding commitment, IT decision-makers can be left in the dark...and that's not a good place to be in 2019. Device drivers have to be careful when using memory. The character % introduces a job name. Writing a byte to a file position beyond the end of the file …

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Linux adventures with ypset

Now synonymous with private cloud computing, the OpenStack cloud framework likely would not exist, or at least would be incredibly different, without Linux. According to the Stack Overflow 2016 survey, desktop developers now constitute just 6.9 percent of all developers (and that also includes Mac Desktops). Without Linux as …

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Installing a web server under Cub Linux

As the writing process writes to the pipe, bytes are copied into the shared data page and when the reading process reads from the pipe, bytes are copied from the shared data page. To make it easy to find, the current, running, process is pointed to by the current pointer …

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Can a distro make the difference?

Physical filesystems reside on block storage devices, such as CDs, floppy disks, compact flash cards, or hard drives. Today open source software has become critical for almost every organization. If you love the rolling Linux distributions (here are some fixed vs rolling release differences), then you don't need to look …

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Learn mesg to further your career

Each device driver tells the operating system how to use that specific device. The process tree is rooted at the first process, known as the init process, which is typically the init program. By and throughout the 1990s, you could find MINIX installations thriving in universities worldwide-and a young Linus …

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Create your own video streaming server with BackTrack

The Linux kernel, supporting both preemptive multitasking and virtual memory, provides every process both a virtualized processor and a virtualized view of memory. This is true even if the device is a modem being used by the PPP daemon to connect a Linux system onto a network. Therefore Linux adds …

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Generating use cases for C++

No distribution of Linux is completely bug-free, so you may be required to fix small problems by hand after installation. Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. There are Web sites, articles, and books devoted to the subject, and Linux User Groups (also known as LUGs) meet in …

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Has head gone past its sell by date?

Therefore, when moving to the PDP-11 as the main hardware platform, the developers started C as the as a core language for Unix. Advocates of copyleft respond by pointing out that there is no such thing as absolute freedom. The test and set operation is, so far as each process …

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How to automate tasks on a Linux system

Its purpose is to provide a financial incentive for producing such works in order to benefit society as a whole. It also has a utility to let you select real-time kernels. The systemd-boot bootloader generates a menu of boot image options, and can load any EFI boot image. When a …

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Turn on assembly listings

From the filename, the kernel obtains the inode number. The command cd may be run without a location as we saw in the shortcut above but usually will be run with a single command line argument which is the location we would like to change into. A block device cannot …

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My experience with Nova

By opening the code to widespread examination, more people take part in finding its bugs and security flaws, in testing for broad compatibility across platforms, and in providing new ideas. This means that when the next process that attempts to access this memory gets a page fault, the shared memory …

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How to install mknod on Suse

In this way, the Internet acts as the glue that binds together Linux developers in particular and OSS developers in general. Built in to the structure of the command-line environment are dozens of commands and several text-based help systems. Now, imagine that the execution of all the above commands is …

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Fall in love with stty

It will recognize a multiline header if the last character on each line but the last is a left parenthesis or comma. In general, failing to agree with the standards is considered a bug. So, be prepared. The key to success with studying at home is strong motivation.

Has col …

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Creating a SPEAKUP_DOCS.TXT file for your distro

Interestingly, the ability of bash scripting is also one of the most compelling reasons why programmers prefer using Linux OS. Linux has two types of system timers, both queue routines to be called at some system time but they are slightly different in their implementations. Most open source Internet tools …

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Who wants to know the mystery behind esdcat

Whenever we refer to a file or directory we are using one of these paths. Popular distributions include Debian, Fedora, Mint, and Ubuntu, but there are many others. The CPU can access both the system space memory and the I/O space memory, whereas the controllers themselves can only access …

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How can I help with Linux?

The access file logs every visit to your web site. For example, a processor could execute an instruction every clock pulse. A way to prevent that is regular updates and only download software, themes and plugns form reliable sources. It looks at each member of the operations pending queue (sem_pending …

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Running nfsd inside a docker image

Because Linux has such a large number of contributors from across multiple decades of development, contacting each individual author and getting them to agree to a new license is virtually impossible, so that Linux remaining licensed under the GPLv2 in perpetuity is all but assured. Linux tracks the usage of …

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Let your SmoothWall terminal speak its mind

In this case, Direct Memory Access (DMA) controllers are used to allow hardware peripherals to directly access system memory but this access is under strict control and supervision of the CPU. This creates a new vm_area_struct data structure describing the shared memory for this process. The thrust behind Linux development …

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Using the rev tool on Kali

Finally there is the main memory which relative to the external cache memory is very slow. Yes, it behaved slightly differently, but I found I could be much more efficient - while using Free Software! There are various other techniques how to define shell interpreter, but this is a solid start …

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Cloud storage using NextCloud

The IP protocol is a transport layer that is used by other protocols to carry their data. As the cliche goes, "If we both have an apple, and we exchange apples, we each still have one apple. It provides the interfaces documented in SUSv4 and POSIX 2008, including real-time (POSIX …

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Linux is an Extensionless System

For kernel code, once it is complete the developer may ask Linus to include it in the standard kernel, or as an optional add-on feature to the kernel. An inode stores metadata associated with a file, such as its modification timestamp, owner, type, length, and the location of the file's …

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Configuration management under PCLinuxOS

Linux is open-source. With all the activity around Unix at Berkeley, a new delivery of Unix software was born: the Berkeley Software Distribution, or BSD. Furthermore, the developer writing Python or Ruby or Scala can still benefit from knowledge of system programming, as an understanding of the soul of the …

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At the command line with PCP

Public domain refers to the total absence of copyright protection. Normally, Linux would suspend the requestor, putting the process onto a wait queue until there is enough physical memory. It sounds counterintuitive and/or just plain stupid on paper, but is generally seen as the traditional and conservative way to …

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Let your Red Hat Enterprise Linux terminal speak its mind

Linux (as well as many other areas of information technology) is particularly well suited for studying at home because (1) no equipment is needed other than an ordinary personal computer and (2) there is a large amount of free or modestly priced study material that is available from bookstores, in …

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Programming with Smalltalk on Linux

In addition to the real uid, each process also has an effective uid, a saved uid, and a filesystem uid. The terminal in Linux is a wild card. Whereas sockets communicating over the Internet might use a hostname and port pair for identifying the target of communication, Unix domain sockets …

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