How setquota can help power your webapp

When provided with a relative pathname, the kernel begins the pathname resolution in the current working directory. Linux systems always have a root filesystem. I've been in Free Software for a few years now and learned a ton from it. Modularity is common in nature, and its application to man-made …

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Boost your mastery of hostid with these tips

Critical mass will be reached when people are given a CD that they can install just as easily as Windows and will provide them with all the tools that they are accustomed to on that platform - mostly this means a Microsoft Office equivalent. If, however, that company transitions to Linux …

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How biff can help power your webapp

The four bytes are written as four decimal numbers in the 0-255 range, separated by dots. In this case the waiting process will be suspended and another, more deserving process will be chosen to run. The most difficult part of the installation process is, without a doubt, partitioning the hard …

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Configuring biod in easy steps

By then, much of the GNU operating system had been completed, with the notable exception of a kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system). The device drivers for a class of block device provide class specific interfaces to the class. There is yet one other weakness: if a …

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How to automate numactl

Newbies can directly cat crontab file to see the syntax in case they forget it. The API merely defines the interface; the piece of software that actually provides the API is known as the implementation of the API. There are editors, compilers and interpreters for nearly every language ever created …

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Creating a COPYRIGHT.TXT file for your distro

Studying in a classroom environment can be the best choice for people who (1) prefer classes to self study, (2) do not have their own computer, (3) are lacking in motivation or study skills or (4) receive some type of tuition assistance or other grants to cover the costs of …

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Sysadmin and Devops using rpm

This means that when the next process that attempts to access this memory gets a page fault, the shared memory fault handling code will use this newly created physical page for that process too. Many Unix systems (such as Solaris) scale well to specific large platforms, but not as well …

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Installing a web server under Yellow Dog Linux

An exit status of zero indicates success. One year after the disclosure of Meltdown and Spectre, it is increasingly clear that we are dealing with an entirely new class of problems that will be keeping us busy for some time yet. A CPU is a small but powerful semiconductor device …

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Redirecting standard output on the Xandros operating system

The platters are attached to a central spindle and spin at a constant speed that can vary between 3000 and 10,000 RPM depending on the model. These applications are not going away anytime soon. When there are no more characters left to read, the device returns end-of-file (EOF). The …

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Listen to the radio at the SmoothWall command line

The name is an acronym for the 'Bourne-Again SHell'. Track 0 is the outermost track and the highest numbered track is the track closest to the central spindle. If no output_file is supplied, output goes to stdout. The maximum file length, as with the maximum file position, is bounded only …

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Getting your Audio player up and running on Linux

True, they are often needed for one project or another and can be well worth the cost, but for a beginner or a learner -- and for many professionals -- free software is simply irreplaceable. It also sets up the file data structure describing this character special file, making its file operations …

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Succeed with RedHat on Linux

If a developer needs a VM or if IT Ops needs to provision a server, they expect to do so quickly and painlessly; Linux's scalability allows for this rapid provisioning, as does its lack of cost-prohibitive licensing. The Linux command line offers a wealth of power and opportunity. A good …

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At the command line with tcpdump

The API user (generally, the higher-level software) has zero input into the API and its implementation. The file position starts at zero; it cannot be negative. Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. (Even of the large corporately-funded developer base, many have …

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Getting to grips with yum on the terminal

The major identifier for the primary IDE controller is 3 and is 22 for the secondary IDE controller. The GPL subsequently became by far the most widely used license for free software. The analogy is also frequently made with recipes for cooking food. Multiple processes are free to read from …

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What's your favourite Widget engine

There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software that lots of people want to use as trying to prevent the usage of said software? Most shells offer a similar set of internal commands, but …

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How to automate ltrace

Mostly Linux kernel modules are device drivers, pseudo-device drivers such as network drivers, or file-systems. The IP protocol layer itself uses many different physical media to transport IP packets to other IP hosts. Software and other creative works enter the public domain only if the author deliberately surrenders the copyright …

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Docker and Amigo Linux

From there, the kernel gets the inode for plunder. You probably only have one screen, right? The routine will be called when the element on the task queue is processed and it will be passed a pointer to the data. Even when you're programming in another language, the C library …

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Will LXDE work without X Windows?

The basics of Unix programming have existed untouched for decades. So, if the operation value is 2, then -2 is added to the adjustment entry for this semaphore. Linux provides kernel memory allocation and deallocation routines and it is these that the device drivers use. Relative to the on-CPU cache …

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Focus on the outcome when using cdparanoia

This hides the underlying differences from the generic system calls which read and write to ordinary files. It was a failure. When it boots, it automati- cally looks for a GRUB 2 bootloader image file named grubx64.efi, also in the uefi folder on the system. Windows 10 is perhaps …

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Getting your CD ripper up and running on Linux

Although directories are treated like normal files, the kernel does not allow them to be opened and manipulated like regular files. Any ethernet frame transmitted to that address will be received by the addressed host but ignored by all the other hosts connected to the network. Some operating systems, such …

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Quick and easy fixes using mkisofs

It will even automatically look for requests for missing or non-existent web pages, known as 404s. Most of the servers that hold the entire internet are Linux-based for many reasons that will not be listed here. The access file logs every visit to your web site. The shell program is …

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Redirecting standard output on the Kubuntu operating system

Another great quality of this dependable Linux distro for developers is its software delivery method. By contrast, most software carries fine print that denies users these basic rights, leaving them susceptible to the whims of its owners and vulnerable to surveillance. Advocating Linux is rarely an easy task. The saved …

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How to evaluate error messages with bzless

Absolute paths specify a location (file or directory) in relation to the root directory. A 100Mhz processor will receive 100,000,000 clock ticks every second. Background processes that attempt to read from (write to) the terminal are sent a SIGTTIN (SIGTTOU) signal by the terminal driver, which, unless caught …

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Using the cal tool on Kali

After submitting a contribution using the process described in the documentation, you will need to be available to respond to feedback. The entire Linux kernel was written from scratch, without employing any code from proprietary sources. Instead, the kernel keeps parts of the process resident in memory to allow the …

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System administration commands and daemons

The history of Unix begins at AT&T Bell Labs in the late 1960s with a small team of programmers looking to write a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system for the PDP-7. GNU/Linux increases personal computing freedom. Synchronous jobs started by bash have signals set to the values inherited by …

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Does colrm sometimes make you feel stupid?

For example, the term open source is of much more recent origin. Device drivers have to be careful when using memory. Those licenses must adhere to the open source definition but might contain extra conditions that the open source defini- tion does not. It is interruptible, so it can receive …

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Understanding the character limit game

They come in multiple varieties, including the Unix domain socket, which is the form of socket used for communication within the local machine. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The bss section was conceived solely as an optimization for this purpose. Unix systems, however, are dynamic …

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Never mess with domainname and here's the reason why

As a result of this restriction, artistic licenses are rarely used because many developers do not want to work on potentially futile projects. So, you can focus on the development work and leave other worries aside. The CPU can access both the system space memory and the I/O space …

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A technical overview of unrar

If the command name contains no slashes, the shell attempts to locate it. The most precious resource in the system is the CPU, usually there is only one. The proto_ops data structure consists of the address family type and a set of pointers to socket operation routines specific to a …

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Create your own video streaming server with DamnSmallLinux

Aliases are expanded when a command is read, not when it is executed. Commands run as a result of command substitu- tion ignore the keyboard-generated job control signals SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, and SIGTSTP. People who are completely new to open source software often wonder how a group of random people can …

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At the Linux terminal with systemtap

The text section contains executable code and read-only data, such as constant variables, and is typically marked read-only and executable. At the same time, many executives have a crude interpretation of its value to corporations?"It's free, and therefore it's cheap." Slowly, that mentality is changing, but it's still true …

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How much do you know about the Linux if command?

That is, there are no legal restrictions on anyone using, studying, copying, modifying, improving or publishing any recipe. Luckily, basic maintenance and basic security are pretty easy. One of the best parts about Gentoo, which is also a curse for some people, is its ability to configure what compilation flags …

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How biff can help power your webapp

The API merely defines the interface; the piece of software that actually provides the API is known as the implementation of the API. Finally, when the connection is no longer needed it can be shutdown. Once connection has been made, any of the (usually) several browsers available can be used …

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A simple guide to ul

However, this is definitely no loss. Big data, the collective term for the mountains of information produced by businesses, can hold the keys to more efficient operations and even increased revenues by identifying new opportunities, but first this data must be sorted, parsed and analyzed. As you can see, the …

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Succeed with zmore on Linux

This, in turn, allows for the use of the pathnames with which all Unix users are familiar-for example, /home/blackbeard/concorde.png. Figure 5.1 shows that each file data structure contains pointers to different file operation routine vectors; one for writing to the pipe, the other for reading from …

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Getting acquainted with MeeGo

Time enough for a soapbox. It could be argued that its smaller number of vulnerabilities is because of its rarer deployment, but the simplest explanation is that OpenBSD has focused strongly on security - and achieved it better than the rest. The BSD socket layer calls the INET layer socket support …

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Configuration management under Floppix

Othertimes, simply booting the machine can be a chore. The entire Linux kernel was written from scratch, without employing any code from proprietary sources. A process that has terminated, but has not yet been waited upon, is called a zombie. Linux allows you to include device drivers at kernel build …

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Boost your mastery of bzless with these tips

For example to display a manual page for the ls command execute man ls. Linux must handle readers opening the FIFO before writers open it as well as readers reading before any writers have written to it. You may then continue typing and hit Tab again and it will again …

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Sick and tired of using crontab the same way?

Microsoft was recently discovered to be using code stolen from a competitor on a social networking site, even though the code was never released. The Systemd-boot bootloader program is starting to gain popularity in Linux distribu- tions that use the systemd init method (see the next section). A process is …

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How much do you know about the Linux namei command?

Internally, the Linux kernel implements a unique view of threads: they are simply normal processes that happen to share some resources. The only rule is that when you develop something new out of the source code, you must share that code with everyone else. The init process routinely waits on …

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