Getting C++ and Fuduntu to play nicely

The master disk on the primary controller is /dev/hda and the slave disk is /dev/hdb. It is being widely used in embedded devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Data Assistants). All the linux commands like grep, cat and ls can be pipelined easily. It sure isn't …

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Understanding the fundamentals of iproute2

An interrupt driven device driver is one where the hardware device being controlled will raise a hardware interrupt whenever it needs to be serviced. Thus they are also called built-in commands. Most of the Linux kernel is written in the C programming language, with a little bit of assembly and …

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Minimize speed when using your first defined symbol

The Graphical User Interface is much easier and I can already do most of what I need there." To a certain extent you would be right, and by no means am I suggesting you should ditch the GUI. Networking the critical aspects of a city, from manhole covers and traffic …

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Generating use cases for Smalltalk

The IDE disks are controlled by the IDE controller chip and the SCSI disks by the SCSI disk controller chips and so on. Press the B key to boot the system using the new values. The source code for Linux is under copyright by its many individual authors, and licensed …

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Does it run under KDE on the Ubuntu distro?

Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. It is time for the opening of the tools that will be needed to build this new age. Numerous such standards exist but, technically speaking, Linux does not officially comply with any of them. When using Linux, you often face configurations …

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Getting up and running with LXDE

When the kernel is asked to open a pathname like this, it walks each directory entry (called a dentry inside of the kernel) in the pathname to find the inode of the next entry. At the same time, many executives have a crude interpretation of its value to corporations?"It's …

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Interesting apps based on ssh-keygen

Where the timers go in the timer table is statically defined (rather like the bottom half handler table bh_base). In fact, Richard Stallman wouldn't have bothered writing the GNU system if he thought his project wouldn't mean anything. In addition, in the open source world, vulnerabilities are discussed publicly, so …

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Listen to the radio at the Cucumber Linux command line

Open source software isn't free from cost, of course. Where in I/O space the common peripherals (IDE controller, serial port, floppy disk controller and so on) have their registers has been set by convention over the years as the PC architecture has developed. Also there is no mechanism for …

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Redirecting output with PCLinuxOS

Very small company leadership, with less than ten personnel, often incorrectly assume that interpersonal issues and technical decisions are not correlated at all. The kernel does not impose any restrictions on concurrent file access. Each command comes with a manual page which can be used to learn about its function …

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Fall in love with uptime

Thus they are also called built-in commands. This means that companies can run Linux on very large and expensive hardware for big tasks, such as graphics rendering or chemical molecular modeling, as well as on older hardware, such as an old Sun UltraSPARC computer, to extend its lifetime in a …

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Good fortune at the terminal

Though I make no claim to it's quality, even Microsoft Windows is "free of cost" to consumers. Recently, it got a new Pixel desktop, which has improved the overall look of the OS as well. Linux affects IT operations teams, developers, network engineers, lines of business and the CIO's office …

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Editing with vi and dnssec-keygen

This might be a bit of a controversial statement, but I've not seen any Linux GUIs that are quite as good as Windows. In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie wrote, "The C Programming Language," a book that is today as it was 20 years ago: THE book on C programming. Like …

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The key to success with mdu

Linux and other open source projects built on top of it have helped to drive the a standardization of IT, allowing for more interoperability across the world's business environment. Many of the devices you own probably, such as Android phones, digital storage devices, personal video recorders, cameras, wearables, and more …

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How zgrep can spruce up your system

So that Linux can manage the processes in the system, each process is represented by a task_struct data structure (task and process are terms that Linux uses interchangeably). Signals have no inherent relative priorities. If you tried to code up something similar in C from scratch, you'd be looking at …

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How setquota can help power your webapp

When provided with a relative pathname, the kernel begins the pathname resolution in the current working directory. Linux systems always have a root filesystem. I've been in Free Software for a few years now and learned a ton from it. Modularity is common in nature, and its application to man-made …

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Boost your mastery of hostid with these tips

Critical mass will be reached when people are given a CD that they can install just as easily as Windows and will provide them with all the tools that they are accustomed to on that platform - mostly this means a Microsoft Office equivalent. If, however, that company transitions to Linux …

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How biff can help power your webapp

The four bytes are written as four decimal numbers in the 0-255 range, separated by dots. In this case the waiting process will be suspended and another, more deserving process will be chosen to run. The most difficult part of the installation process is, without a doubt, partitioning the hard …

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Configuring biod in easy steps

By then, much of the GNU operating system had been completed, with the notable exception of a kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system). The device drivers for a class of block device provide class specific interfaces to the class. There is yet one other weakness: if a …

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How to automate numactl

Newbies can directly cat crontab file to see the syntax in case they forget it. The API merely defines the interface; the piece of software that actually provides the API is known as the implementation of the API. There are editors, compilers and interpreters for nearly every language ever created …

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Creating a COPYRIGHT.TXT file for your distro

Studying in a classroom environment can be the best choice for people who (1) prefer classes to self study, (2) do not have their own computer, (3) are lacking in motivation or study skills or (4) receive some type of tuition assistance or other grants to cover the costs of …

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Sysadmin and Devops using rpm

This means that when the next process that attempts to access this memory gets a page fault, the shared memory fault handling code will use this newly created physical page for that process too. Many Unix systems (such as Solaris) scale well to specific large platforms, but not as well …

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Installing a web server under Yellow Dog Linux

An exit status of zero indicates success. One year after the disclosure of Meltdown and Spectre, it is increasingly clear that we are dealing with an entirely new class of problems that will be keeping us busy for some time yet. A CPU is a small but powerful semiconductor device …

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Redirecting standard output on the Xandros operating system

The platters are attached to a central spindle and spin at a constant speed that can vary between 3000 and 10,000 RPM depending on the model. These applications are not going away anytime soon. When there are no more characters left to read, the device returns end-of-file (EOF). The …

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Listen to the radio at the SmoothWall command line

The name is an acronym for the 'Bourne-Again SHell'. Track 0 is the outermost track and the highest numbered track is the track closest to the central spindle. If no output_file is supplied, output goes to stdout. The maximum file length, as with the maximum file position, is bounded only …

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Getting your Audio player up and running on Linux

True, they are often needed for one project or another and can be well worth the cost, but for a beginner or a learner -- and for many professionals -- free software is simply irreplaceable. It also sets up the file data structure describing this character special file, making its file operations …

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Succeed with RedHat on Linux

If a developer needs a VM or if IT Ops needs to provision a server, they expect to do so quickly and painlessly; Linux's scalability allows for this rapid provisioning, as does its lack of cost-prohibitive licensing. The Linux command line offers a wealth of power and opportunity. A good …

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At the command line with tcpdump

The API user (generally, the higher-level software) has zero input into the API and its implementation. The file position starts at zero; it cannot be negative. Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. (Even of the large corporately-funded developer base, many have …

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Getting to grips with yum on the terminal

The major identifier for the primary IDE controller is 3 and is 22 for the secondary IDE controller. The GPL subsequently became by far the most widely used license for free software. The analogy is also frequently made with recipes for cooking food. Multiple processes are free to read from …

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What's your favourite Widget engine

There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software that lots of people want to use as trying to prevent the usage of said software? Most shells offer a similar set of internal commands, but …

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How to automate ltrace

Mostly Linux kernel modules are device drivers, pseudo-device drivers such as network drivers, or file-systems. The IP protocol layer itself uses many different physical media to transport IP packets to other IP hosts. Software and other creative works enter the public domain only if the author deliberately surrenders the copyright …

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Docker and Amigo Linux

From there, the kernel gets the inode for plunder. You probably only have one screen, right? The routine will be called when the element on the task queue is processed and it will be passed a pointer to the data. Even when you're programming in another language, the C library …

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Will LXDE work without X Windows?

The basics of Unix programming have existed untouched for decades. So, if the operation value is 2, then -2 is added to the adjustment entry for this semaphore. Linux provides kernel memory allocation and deallocation routines and it is these that the device drivers use. Relative to the on-CPU cache …

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Focus on the outcome when using cdparanoia

This hides the underlying differences from the generic system calls which read and write to ordinary files. It was a failure. When it boots, it automati- cally looks for a GRUB 2 bootloader image file named grubx64.efi, also in the uefi folder on the system. Windows 10 is perhaps …

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Getting your CD ripper up and running on Linux

Although directories are treated like normal files, the kernel does not allow them to be opened and manipulated like regular files. Any ethernet frame transmitted to that address will be received by the addressed host but ignored by all the other hosts connected to the network. Some operating systems, such …

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Quick and easy fixes using mkisofs

It will even automatically look for requests for missing or non-existent web pages, known as 404s. Most of the servers that hold the entire internet are Linux-based for many reasons that will not be listed here. The access file logs every visit to your web site. The shell program is …

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Redirecting standard output on the Kubuntu operating system

Another great quality of this dependable Linux distro for developers is its software delivery method. By contrast, most software carries fine print that denies users these basic rights, leaving them susceptible to the whims of its owners and vulnerable to surveillance. Advocating Linux is rarely an easy task. The saved …

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How to evaluate error messages with bzless

Absolute paths specify a location (file or directory) in relation to the root directory. A 100Mhz processor will receive 100,000,000 clock ticks every second. Background processes that attempt to read from (write to) the terminal are sent a SIGTTIN (SIGTTOU) signal by the terminal driver, which, unless caught …

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Using the cal tool on Kali

After submitting a contribution using the process described in the documentation, you will need to be available to respond to feedback. The entire Linux kernel was written from scratch, without employing any code from proprietary sources. Instead, the kernel keeps parts of the process resident in memory to allow the …

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System administration commands and daemons

The history of Unix begins at AT&T Bell Labs in the late 1960s with a small team of programmers looking to write a multi-tasking, multi-user operating system for the PDP-7. GNU/Linux increases personal computing freedom. Synchronous jobs started by bash have signals set to the values inherited by …

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Does colrm sometimes make you feel stupid?

For example, the term open source is of much more recent origin. Device drivers have to be careful when using memory. Those licenses must adhere to the open source definition but might contain extra conditions that the open source defini- tion does not. It is interruptible, so it can receive …

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