My emacs and imapd workflow

There are three types of partition supported by fdisk, primary, extended and logical. The device driver maps the bytes over a seekable device, and user space is free to access any valid bytes in the array, in any order-it might read byte 12, then byte 7, and then byte 12 …

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Never mess with apropos and here's the reason why

The second essential factor for a positive and efficient conversion to Linux is directly related to the Hardware Factor. When the last process sharing the memory detaches from it, the pages of the shared memory current in physical memory are freed, as is the shmid_ds data structure for this shared …

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How to install seq on Ubuntu

Sustainable technologies are about ensuring access to knowledge forever. Traditionally, all Unix programming was system-level programming. Critical mass will be reached when people are given a CD that they can install just as easily as Windows and will provide them with all the tools that they are accustomed to on …

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A simple guide to dnssec-makekeyset

Currently, in Distrowatch's past 6 months ranking, it sits at #3. Linux clearly needed a better filesystem! Named pipes act like regular pipes but are accessed via a file, called a FIFO special file. You can interpret the answer into the GUI tool of your choice.

Fundamentals of dpkg

A …

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How to install ddrescue on Ubuntu

If the kernel handles the signals, it will do the default actions required for this signal. The target host that owns the IP address, responds with an ARP reply that contains its physical hardware address. First, arrow to the boot option that you want to modify, and then press the …

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No more mistakes with dd

A vi-style line editing interface is also available. So that modules can use the kernel resources that they need, they must be able to find them. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The operations performed may cause the processor to stop what it is doing and …

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Where to get more detail on git

When there are no more characters left to read, the device returns end-of-file (EOF). On GNU/Linux systems a file command can be used to identify a type of the file. Unlike most other operating systems, Linux is freely developed and continu- ously improved by a large community of software …

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Is Pantheon the best windows manager for Linux?

In either case, the kernel simply resolves the pathname to the correct inode. Users are expected to shell out cash and more cash for each "feature" Microsoft decided to throw their way. Compare this to a floppy disk which only spins at 360 RPM. It is a synthasisable core and …

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The importance of psmisc on the Rasberry Pi

Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. Sometimes the DMA channel for a device can be set by jumpers; a number of ethernet devices use this technique. In user space, Linux implements threads in accordance with POSIX 1003.1c (known as Pthreads …

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Getting started with the Linux modinfo command

What interesting system calls are provided in Linux compared to other Unix variants? Yet, it was relatively little used for computer software prior to the development of UNIX, and even today its great benefits fail to be fully exploited by other operating systems, most notably the Microsoft Windows systems. A …

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Sysadmin and Devops using mkdosfs

The default action for the SIGFPE signal will core dump the process and then cause it to exit. Each IDE controller can support up to two disks, one the master disk and the other the slave disk. People will stand up and take notice and realize that Linux is not …

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Can you pass the repquota test?

If you've always wanted to learn programming, whether you want to develop software professionally or just for fun, there's no better platform to cut your teeth on. Linux names IDE disks in the order in which it finds their controllers. Even if you plan to move on to more advanced …

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Is experience with mpg123 an employable skill?

That is, there are no legal restrictions on anyone using, studying, copying, modifying, improving or publishing any recipe. An alternative to purchasing a Linux book is to borrow one (or many) from a library; it is likely that some of them will also contain CDROMs that can be used to …

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Developing with slabtop

Finally, if you are contributing to an existing kernel module, you will need to learn about their procedures and development cycle. In Linux, the standard C compiler is provided by the GNU Compiler Collection (gcc). It would not matter to me which distro was being advocated as long as the …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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At the command line with gdb

Windows implementation is very high-level. In the event of a total implosion, much of the software can be reinstalled with batch files made up of multiple sudo apt install statements. Ask ten people on the street what a "blue screen of death" is or if their Windows PC has ever …

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Answered - your most burning quotaon questions

You may have already noticed that in order to execute shell script the file needs to be made executable by use of chmod +x FILENAME command. The kernel calls the modules initialization routine and, if it is successful it carries on installing the module. The g++ C++ compiler is ISO …

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Generating use cases for Objective-C

Note that HP-UX, GNU/Linux (usually), Solaris and recent releases of FreeBSD cycle back to zero after 497 days, exactly as if the machine had been rebooted at that precise point. Each hardware controller has its own control and status registers (CSRs) and these differ between devices. The reason is …

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What's your favorite Linux terminal emulator?

This makes kernel memory deallocation easier as the smaller free blocks can be recombined into bigger blocks. This means that the process can continue to run. There are many ways to make money, so why choose a method that requires investing just as much time and effort into making software …

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Which distro do you prefer to use KDE Plasma on?

Writing a byte to the middle of a file overwrites the byte previously located at that offset. Conceptually, nothing covered thus far would prevent multiple names resolving to the same inode. Without this surrounding commitment, IT decision-makers can be left in the dark...and that's not a good place to …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Are you making these mistakes with import

Some operating systems, such as VMS, provide highly structured files, supporting concepts such as records. Linux maintains the set of registered block devices as the blkdevs vector. A process is also associated with various system resources, which are arbitrated and managed by the kernel. Its own Software Center has tons …

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Data collection under Ubuntu

The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The tools philosophy was to have small programs to accomplish a particular task instead of trying to develop large monolithic programs to do a large number of tasks. Let it suffice to say that not every single bug has been …

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Getting started with the Linux script command

It's basically community version of Red Hat without any fee or support. Thus, there is no term free mathematics. Soon enough this will become an extremely tedious task destined for failure. The caricatures speak of wizard-like "graybeards" sitting behind glowing green screens, writing C code and shell scripts, powered by …

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Getting up and running with KDE Plasma

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. Unlike the MINIX filesystem before it, ext could address up to 2GB of storage and handle 255-character …

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Programming with C++ on Linux

Richard Stallman's stallman.org is a perfect example. This behaviour has spawned a whole new wave of viruses and is a gross breach of privacy. It will recognize a multiline header if the last character on each line but the last is a left parenthesis or comma. Much of enterprise …

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Let your ALTLinux terminal speak its mind

This allows the ethernet layer to correctly receive IP packets and to pass them onto the IP layer. The boot disks are located in the bootdisks/ directory in the distribution tree. Indeed, they even have associated inodes. It is vital that we keep a philosophical approach so that our beliefs …

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Getting a mail server up and running on Caldera OpenLinux

Whereas MINIX is based on a microkernel that contains the bare minimum amount of code necessary to run an operating system, Linux has a monolithic kernel, which means that functions like the file system, virtual memory, and various system calls all take place in privileged kernel space. But the existence …

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Getting Gnome Flashback to work with a dual screen monitor

The kernel allocates a new module data structure and enough kernel memory to hold the new module and puts it at the end of the kernel modules list. By virtue of its open source licensing, Linux is freely available to anyone. People who develop OSS commonly use the Internet to …

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How to automate dpkg

You can easily see the exported kernel symbols and their values by looking at /proc/ksyms or by using the ksyms utility. As the writing process writes to the pipe, bytes are copied into the shared data page and when the reading process reads from the pipe, bytes are copied …

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Is C Sharp the best programming language for Linux?

This is one of those arguments that sounds good superficially but which is not borne out by the evidence. If the thief runs, he/she probably won't get caught, and it is a quick way to make some extra cash. If you've always wanted to learn programming, whether you want …

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The ultimate guide to unicode_start

You can control everything from the command line. There is yet one other weakness: if a computer switches operating systems later, the long uptime is credited to the new OS. Peripherals are real devices, such as graphics cards or disks controlled by controller chips on the system board or on …

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The ultimate guide to gs

These negative connotations include lack of quality, of robustness, of support and of long-term commitment. The shell program is what presents the prompt and accepts subsequent commands. This means that it's not enough for a Linux platform to support what an enterprise needs right now. Copyright does not protect facts …

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Is biod better on FreeBSD than Linux?

Processes are allowed to do non-blocking reads (it depends on the mode in which they opened the file or pipe) and, in this case, if there is no data to be read or if the pipe is locked, an error will be returned. When processes are deleted, as they exit …

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Redirecting output with Freesco

Processes are free to use a FIFO so long as they have appropriate access rights to it. Most people believe it is wrong to steal, and therefore, won't rob a wallet. Today open source software has become critical for almost every organization. The access file logs every visit to your …

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Boost your mastery of mt with these tips

Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. This greatly assists integration efforts - and facilitates movement between systems when necessary. But, due to some recent changes, Ubuntu has switched back to GNOME …

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How logname can help power your webapp

When a user-space application requests that a given filename be opened, the kernel opens the directory containing the filename and searches for the given name. If the expiry time for an active timer has expired (expiry time is less than the current system jiffies), its timer routine is called and …

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