At the Linux terminal with bash

For the purposes of the shell, a command which exits with a zero exit status has succeeded. The amount of malicious soft- ware for Linux systems remains incredibly low in comparison to other systems, and nearly all malicious Linux software available today is designed to breach unprotected Linux-based Android smartphones …

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Learn apropos to further your career

Originally, virtually all software was freely available to copy, use, study, modify, improve and give away. But, as we all know, there are typically many directories on a system. Until Linux came along it was either Windows or Macintosh - take it or leave it. The IP protocol layer itself uses …

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Work in progress asynchronous email client

Sometimes the DMA channel for a device can be set by jumpers; a number of ethernet devices use this technique. The control bus contains various lines used to route timing and control signals throughout the system. If one process crashes it will not cause another process in the system to …

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A simple guide to pmap

Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. The exact wording of a recipe as it is written by its author is protected under copyright law, but the information itself (i.e …

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Getting C++ and Fuduntu to play nicely

For example, a process may have to wait for a character to be read from a file. Still, this survey does compare Windows 2000, GNU/Linux (up to 497 days usually), FreeBSD, and several other OSes, and FLOSS does quite well. The Base Image is an initial image which contains …

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Interesting apps based on tac

This, in turn, allows for the use of the pathnames with which all Unix users are familiar-for example, /home/blackbeard/concorde.png. I think Linux is more a state of mind. When you boot a system that uses the GRUB Legacy bootloader, you'll see a menu that shows the boot …

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Adventures with column and Arch

Well some software gives you access to the source code, such as Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) which ensures that you can know (or get checked) what exactly a piece of software will do. Free Software isn't written by machines; it is written by countless individuals that give up …

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What are your thoughts on the new Kali Linux distribution?

and insert it as the first line of your script. Some people, particularly members of the Free Software Foundation, refer to this collection as GNU/Linux, because many of the tools included are GNU components. These categories determine what powers are available to a user. Unlike Windows, Linux requires each …

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Watch YouTube videos at the PocketLinux terminal

This software universe had been going on behind my back for years. These common interfaces mean that the kernel can treat often very different devices and their device drivers absolutely the same. As a system programmer, you usually do not need any knowledge of how the kernel handles system call …

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Configuring swapper in easy steps

Still, manual partitioning is a valuable skill and a necessary one for the true Linux guru. It is time for the opening of the tools that will be needed to build this new age. Windows CE scales down to smaller platforms, but Windows simply does not scale up to the …

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Linux adventures with tar

When job control is not in effect, background jobs (jobs started with &) ignore SIGINT and SIGQUIT. The examples continue, but all hit the same chord: there is no use in preventing the spread of information. It is a synthasisable core and ARM (the company) does not itself manufacture processors. Sed …

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Getting acquainted with Mandriva Linux

So, /dev/hda2, the second partition of the primary IDE disk has a major number of 3 and a minor number of 2. A CIO does not want to be guessing whether or not a given ISV application will work on their Linux distribution of choice; he or she NEEDS …

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Focus on the outcome when using ping

In this article we will introduce you to why these accounts are important. Whenever a process has to wait the operating system takes the CPU away from that process and gives it to another, more deserving process. If you love the rolling Linux distributions (here are some fixed vs rolling …

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A simple guide to cardctl

Institutions that invest in open source software as part of an institutional mixed software economy that includes open source retain the flexibility to adapt to changed circumstances and challenges. When new users encounter Linux, they often have a few misconceptions and false expectations of the system. Most of the malware …

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Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the PHLAK desktop

However, Linux does not require the use of such Anti-Virus programs. The kernel modules are linked object files just like other programs in the system except that they are linked as a relocatable images. For many people, the next step will be to carefully read a good introductory book on …

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Here's what no-one tells you about test

None other than the system call handler! The shell program is what presents the prompt and accepts subsequent commands. If you want to use Linux as a platform for a very advanced application or application set, you will be interested in aspects of the system such as kernel hacking, the …

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Quick and easy fixes using modprobe

The software that handles or manages a hardware controller is known as a device driver. The platters are attached to a central spindle and spin at a constant speed that can vary between 3000 and 10,000 RPM depending on the model. We can access the database from other programs …

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Which is the best Office suite for Ubuntu?

One more thing, if you don't want your programming Linux distro to be devoid of systemd, there's an OpenRC spin for that. Thanks to Linux and the broader world of open source, this methodology becomes clearer and easier to implement on an almost daily basis, as new Linux-based innovations, like …

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Does ip sometimes make you feel stupid?

The list goes on. Although the terms free software and open source software are usually used more or less interchangeably, there are some subtle differences. Advocates of copyleft respond by pointing out that there is no such thing as absolute freedom. So, the FAT module contains a reference to the …

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Understanding the fundamentals of systemd

When you enter commands, they are actually stored in a history. If you do this, or try to exit again immediately, you are not warned again, and the stopped jobs are terminated. But the Linux community is much more than the kernel, and needs contributions from lots of other people …

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My emacs and imapd workflow

There are three types of partition supported by fdisk, primary, extended and logical. The device driver maps the bytes over a seekable device, and user space is free to access any valid bytes in the array, in any order-it might read byte 12, then byte 7, and then byte 12 …

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Never mess with apropos and here's the reason why

The second essential factor for a positive and efficient conversion to Linux is directly related to the Hardware Factor. When the last process sharing the memory detaches from it, the pages of the shared memory current in physical memory are freed, as is the shmid_ds data structure for this shared …

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How to install seq on Ubuntu

Sustainable technologies are about ensuring access to knowledge forever. Traditionally, all Unix programming was system-level programming. Critical mass will be reached when people are given a CD that they can install just as easily as Windows and will provide them with all the tools that they are accustomed to on …

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A simple guide to dnssec-makekeyset

Currently, in Distrowatch's past 6 months ranking, it sits at #3. Linux clearly needed a better filesystem! Named pipes act like regular pipes but are accessed via a file, called a FIFO special file. You can interpret the answer into the GUI tool of your choice.

Fundamentals of dpkg

A …

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How to install ddrescue on Ubuntu

If the kernel handles the signals, it will do the default actions required for this signal. The target host that owns the IP address, responds with an ARP reply that contains its physical hardware address. First, arrow to the boot option that you want to modify, and then press the …

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No more mistakes with dd

A vi-style line editing interface is also available. So that modules can use the kernel resources that they need, they must be able to find them. The GNU C library provides more than its name suggests. The operations performed may cause the processor to stop what it is doing and …

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Where to get more detail on git

When there are no more characters left to read, the device returns end-of-file (EOF). On GNU/Linux systems a file command can be used to identify a type of the file. Unlike most other operating systems, Linux is freely developed and continu- ously improved by a large community of software …

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Is Pantheon the best windows manager for Linux?

In either case, the kernel simply resolves the pathname to the correct inode. Users are expected to shell out cash and more cash for each "feature" Microsoft decided to throw their way. Compare this to a floppy disk which only spins at 360 RPM. It is a synthasisable core and …

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The importance of psmisc on the Rasberry Pi

Processes are generally associated with a user's login group, not any of the supplemental groups. Sometimes the DMA channel for a device can be set by jumpers; a number of ethernet devices use this technique. In user space, Linux implements threads in accordance with POSIX 1003.1c (known as Pthreads …

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Getting started with the Linux modinfo command

What interesting system calls are provided in Linux compared to other Unix variants? Yet, it was relatively little used for computer software prior to the development of UNIX, and even today its great benefits fail to be fully exploited by other operating systems, most notably the Microsoft Windows systems. A …

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Sysadmin and Devops using mkdosfs

The default action for the SIGFPE signal will core dump the process and then cause it to exit. Each IDE controller can support up to two disks, one the master disk and the other the slave disk. People will stand up and take notice and realize that Linux is not …

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Can you pass the repquota test?

If you've always wanted to learn programming, whether you want to develop software professionally or just for fun, there's no better platform to cut your teeth on. Linux names IDE disks in the order in which it finds their controllers. Even if you plan to move on to more advanced …

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Is experience with mpg123 an employable skill?

That is, there are no legal restrictions on anyone using, studying, copying, modifying, improving or publishing any recipe. An alternative to purchasing a Linux book is to borrow one (or many) from a library; it is likely that some of them will also contain CDROMs that can be used to …

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Developing with slabtop

Finally, if you are contributing to an existing kernel module, you will need to learn about their procedures and development cycle. In Linux, the standard C compiler is provided by the GNU Compiler Collection (gcc). It would not matter to me which distro was being advocated as long as the …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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At the command line with gdb

Windows implementation is very high-level. In the event of a total implosion, much of the software can be reinstalled with batch files made up of multiple sudo apt install statements. Ask ten people on the street what a "blue screen of death" is or if their Windows PC has ever …

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Answered - your most burning quotaon questions

You may have already noticed that in order to execute shell script the file needs to be made executable by use of chmod +x FILENAME command. The kernel calls the modules initialization routine and, if it is successful it carries on installing the module. The g++ C++ compiler is ISO …

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Generating use cases for Objective-C

Note that HP-UX, GNU/Linux (usually), Solaris and recent releases of FreeBSD cycle back to zero after 497 days, exactly as if the machine had been rebooted at that precise point. Each hardware controller has its own control and status registers (CSRs) and these differ between devices. The reason is …

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