Redirection of output

The most common disks used in Linux systems today are Integrated Disk Electronic or IDE disks. This is because IP addresses are simply an addressing concept, the ethernet devices themselves have their own physical addresses. The LSB extends POSIX and SUS, and adds several standards of its own; it attempts …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

It would not be enough to stop here, though. OSS is developed by those people who have a use for it. TCP/IP is so entrenched that Windows implemented it. Shell scripts are not unlike Windows batch files for controlling the system, but a lot more powerful.

Learn how I …

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Can you get LXDE to work on your own distro?

Why make it easier for them. Linux supports three types of hardware device: character, block and network. For Linux, a vendor can create a device driver for a specific hardware device and expect that, within reason, it will operate across most distributions. They should be given the opportunity to examine …

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Getting your Terminal emulator up and running on Linux

Its latest releases often inspire the other Linux distributions to adopt new features and make changes. Any site that is requested through the "what's that site running" query form at Netcraft.com is added to the set of sites that are routinely sampled; Netcraft doesn't routinely monitor all 22 million …

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What are your thoughts on the new Kali Linux distribution?

and insert it as the first line of your script. Some people, particularly members of the Free Software Foundation, refer to this collection as GNU/Linux, because many of the tools included are GNU components. These categories determine what powers are available to a user. Unlike Windows, Linux requires each …

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Configuring swapper in easy steps

Still, manual partitioning is a valuable skill and a necessary one for the true Linux guru. It is time for the opening of the tools that will be needed to build this new age. Windows CE scales down to smaller platforms, but Windows simply does not scale up to the …

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Old school Linux with the shutdown utility

An inode stores metadata associated with a file, such as its modification timestamp, owner, type, length, and the location of the file's data-but no filename! Sed, as you saw in our example, is basically used for altering a text file without actually having to open it up in a traditional …

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Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the PHLAK desktop

However, Linux does not require the use of such Anti-Virus programs. The kernel modules are linked object files just like other programs in the system except that they are linked as a relocatable images. For many people, the next step will be to carefully read a good introductory book on …

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Here's what no-one tells you about test

None other than the system call handler! The shell program is what presents the prompt and accepts subsequent commands. If you want to use Linux as a platform for a very advanced application or application set, you will be interested in aspects of the system such as kernel hacking, the …

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Quick and easy fixes using modprobe

The software that handles or manages a hardware controller is known as a device driver. The platters are attached to a central spindle and spin at a constant speed that can vary between 3000 and 10,000 RPM depending on the model. We can access the database from other programs …

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Which is the best Office suite for Ubuntu?

One more thing, if you don't want your programming Linux distro to be devoid of systemd, there's an OpenRC spin for that. Thanks to Linux and the broader world of open source, this methodology becomes clearer and easier to implement on an almost daily basis, as new Linux-based innovations, like …

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Its all about dnssec-keygen

As it's compiled from RHEL sources, most of the commercial software built for RHEL can be made to run on CentOS. Initially, there is only one directory on the disk, the root directory. But the Linux community is much more than the kernel, and needs contributions from lots of other …

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Does ip sometimes make you feel stupid?

The list goes on. Although the terms free software and open source software are usually used more or less interchangeably, there are some subtle differences. Advocates of copyleft respond by pointing out that there is no such thing as absolute freedom. So, the FAT module contains a reference to the …

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Understanding the fundamentals of systemd

When you enter commands, they are actually stored in a history. If you do this, or try to exit again immediately, you are not warned again, and the stopped jobs are terminated. But the Linux community is much more than the kernel, and needs contributions from lots of other people …

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My emacs and imapd workflow

There are three types of partition supported by fdisk, primary, extended and logical. The device driver maps the bytes over a seekable device, and user space is free to access any valid bytes in the array, in any order-it might read byte 12, then byte 7, and then byte 12 …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in ALTLinux

To accomplish more complex tasks, tools would simply be connected together, using pipes. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. None …

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The key to success with fold

On i386, for example, a register is used for each possible parameter-registers ebx, ecx, edx, esi, and edi contain, in order, the first five parameters. As users developed ways around the methods, the methods kept getting progressively harsher, severely punishing casual proprietary software users who had been legally using and …

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Developing with AppleScript in a Linux container

awk is actually a programming language designed particularly for text manipulation, but it is widely used as an on-the-spot tool for administration. Notably, Linux is the fastest growing operating system released to date. Linux is a multiprocessing operating system, its objective is to have a process running on each CPU …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Automation is also a game-changer using the terminal. Open source has become the de facto way to build software - not only in tech, but across diverse industries. In 1991, this final gap was filled by Linux, a kernel which was written independently of the GNU project by Linus Torvalds, then …

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Installing PCRE

Processes are separate tasks each with their own rights and responsibilities. By using open source software, you can benefit from integrated management. In this case, Direct Memory Access (DMA) controllers are used to allow hardware peripherals to directly access system memory but this access is under strict control and supervision …

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How to set up the C environment on Ubuntu

From the inode number, the inode is found. To be safe, always put alias definitions on a separate line, and do not use alias in compound commands.and comments, except that the function name must be the first thing on the line. These extensions are collectively called GNU C, and …

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Installing a web server under Network Security Toolkit

This bleeding edge distro's repository is always up-to-date. Each class of device driver, character, block and network, provides common interfaces that the kernel uses when requesting services from them. Extended partitions are not real partitions at all, they contain any number of logical parititions. (There are a few instance where …

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Sysadmin and Devops using mkdosfs

The default action for the SIGFPE signal will core dump the process and then cause it to exit. Each IDE controller can support up to two disks, one the master disk and the other the slave disk. People will stand up and take notice and realize that Linux is not …

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Getting the best out of tr when using Ubuntu

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. Specific filesystems, however, may impose …

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Download via Bittorrent

It would not be enough to stop here, though. The world economy will not collapse if creators of software choose to share their work with the world. It may not be the best choice for word processing (or maybe it is -- read on), but many see it as an "ISP …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Minimize speed when using your first character limit

Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. Another type of open source license is the artistic license, which ensures that the source code of the program is freely available yet allows the original author …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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Answered - your most burning quotaon questions

You may have already noticed that in order to execute shell script the file needs to be made executable by use of chmod +x FILENAME command. The kernel calls the modules initialization routine and, if it is successful it carries on installing the module. The g++ C++ compiler is ISO …

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A technical overview of passwd

Many times, it does this in order to avoid vice, but counterintuitively, only ends up creating more of it in the process. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. This subshell reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as …

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The key to success with lpstat

This is especially true for large contributions, new features, or standalone code, like a driver for a specific piece of hardware. Knowledge and information are the building blocks of change. A runnable process is one which is waiting only for a CPU to run on. In addition, in the open …

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Sick and tired of using netstat the same way?

Binary compatibility is maintained across a given major version of glibc, at the very least. Does it support my critical applications? Linux aims toward POSIX and SUS compliance. Of course, most system calls have only a couple of parameters.

Getting Enlightenment to work with a dual screen monitor

This meaning …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Are you making these mistakes with import

Some operating systems, such as VMS, provide highly structured files, supporting concepts such as records. Linux maintains the set of registered block devices as the blkdevs vector. A process is also associated with various system resources, which are arbitrated and managed by the kernel. Its own Software Center has tons …

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Creating a UPGRADE.TXT file for your distro

So when you're writing something in your word processor and you want to check out something on the web, no need to review all your windows to find your browser, stacked all the way behind the others. If you are not already familiar with the GNU GPL, the best way …

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Programming with C++ on Linux

Richard Stallman's stallman.org is a perfect example. This behaviour has spawned a whole new wave of viruses and is a gross breach of privacy. It will recognize a multiline header if the last character on each line but the last is a left parenthesis or comma. Much of enterprise …

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Let your ALTLinux terminal speak its mind

This allows the ethernet layer to correctly receive IP packets and to pass them onto the IP layer. The boot disks are located in the bootdisks/ directory in the distribution tree. Indeed, they even have associated inodes. It is vital that we keep a philosophical approach so that our beliefs …

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