My emacs and imapd workflow

There are three types of partition supported by fdisk, primary, extended and logical. The device driver maps the bytes over a seekable device, and user space is free to access any valid bytes in the array, in any order-it might read byte 12, then byte 7, and then byte 12 …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in ALTLinux

To accomplish more complex tasks, tools would simply be connected together, using pipes. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. None …

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The key to success with fold

On i386, for example, a register is used for each possible parameter-registers ebx, ecx, edx, esi, and edi contain, in order, the first five parameters. As users developed ways around the methods, the methods kept getting progressively harsher, severely punishing casual proprietary software users who had been legally using and …

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Developing with AppleScript in a Linux container

awk is actually a programming language designed particularly for text manipulation, but it is widely used as an on-the-spot tool for administration. Notably, Linux is the fastest growing operating system released to date. Linux is a multiprocessing operating system, its objective is to have a process running on each CPU …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Automation is also a game-changer using the terminal. Open source has become the de facto way to build software - not only in tech, but across diverse industries. In 1991, this final gap was filled by Linux, a kernel which was written independently of the GNU project by Linus Torvalds, then …

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Installing PCRE

Processes are separate tasks each with their own rights and responsibilities. By using open source software, you can benefit from integrated management. In this case, Direct Memory Access (DMA) controllers are used to allow hardware peripherals to directly access system memory but this access is under strict control and supervision …

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How to set up the C environment on Ubuntu

From the inode number, the inode is found. To be safe, always put alias definitions on a separate line, and do not use alias in compound commands.and comments, except that the function name must be the first thing on the line. These extensions are collectively called GNU C, and …

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Installing a web server under Network Security Toolkit

This bleeding edge distro's repository is always up-to-date. Each class of device driver, character, block and network, provides common interfaces that the kernel uses when requesting services from them. Extended partitions are not real partitions at all, they contain any number of logical parititions. (There are a few instance where …

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Sysadmin and Devops using mkdosfs

The default action for the SIGFPE signal will core dump the process and then cause it to exit. Each IDE controller can support up to two disks, one the master disk and the other the slave disk. People will stand up and take notice and realize that Linux is not …

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Getting the best out of tr when using Ubuntu

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. Specific filesystems, however, may impose …

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Download via Bittorrent

It would not be enough to stop here, though. The world economy will not collapse if creators of software choose to share their work with the world. It may not be the best choice for word processing (or maybe it is -- read on), but many see it as an "ISP …

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Troubleshooting hardware problems in Gnoppix

Over the years, Unix systems have supported a handful of different special files. Like so many others I have always thought that one of the greatest attributes of Linux is its diversity of choice, but there are those outside of the Linux world that see this as a negative. Quite …

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Minimize speed when using your first character limit

Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. Another type of open source license is the artistic license, which ensures that the source code of the program is freely available yet allows the original author …

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Principles of kbd under Linux

The receiving IP layer uses that protocol identifier to decide which layer to pass the received data up to, in this case the TCP layer. Kernel modules, like the kernel itself, are usually written in C. When Linux fixes up that page fault it finds the vm_area_struct data structure describing …

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Answered - your most burning quotaon questions

You may have already noticed that in order to execute shell script the file needs to be made executable by use of chmod +x FILENAME command. The kernel calls the modules initialization routine and, if it is successful it carries on installing the module. The g++ C++ compiler is ISO …

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A technical overview of passwd

Many times, it does this in order to avoid vice, but counterintuitively, only ends up creating more of it in the process. At kernel initialization time, the address families built into the kernel register themselves with the BSD socket interface. This subshell reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as …

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The key to success with lpstat

This is especially true for large contributions, new features, or standalone code, like a driver for a specific piece of hardware. Knowledge and information are the building blocks of change. A runnable process is one which is waiting only for a CPU to run on. In addition, in the open …

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Sick and tired of using netstat the same way?

Binary compatibility is maintained across a given major version of glibc, at the very least. Does it support my critical applications? Linux aims toward POSIX and SUS compliance. Of course, most system calls have only a couple of parameters.

Getting Enlightenment to work with a dual screen monitor

This meaning …

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At the Linux terminal with gettext

When a command terminates on a fatal signal, bash uses the value of 128+signal as the exit status. Let's look at creating an image file so we can start a container which we created. Much of enterprise IT's excitement is focused on advancements at the application level (and rightly …

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Are you making these mistakes with import

Some operating systems, such as VMS, provide highly structured files, supporting concepts such as records. Linux maintains the set of registered block devices as the blkdevs vector. A process is also associated with various system resources, which are arbitrated and managed by the kernel. Its own Software Center has tons …

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Creating a UPGRADE.TXT file for your distro

So when you're writing something in your word processor and you want to check out something on the web, no need to review all your windows to find your browser, stacked all the way behind the others. If you are not already familiar with the GNU GPL, the best way …

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Programming with C++ on Linux

Richard Stallman's stallman.org is a perfect example. This behaviour has spawned a whole new wave of viruses and is a gross breach of privacy. It will recognize a multiline header if the last character on each line but the last is a left parenthesis or comma. Much of enterprise …

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Let your ALTLinux terminal speak its mind

This allows the ethernet layer to correctly receive IP packets and to pass them onto the IP layer. The boot disks are located in the bootdisks/ directory in the distribution tree. Indeed, they even have associated inodes. It is vital that we keep a philosophical approach so that our beliefs …

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Answered - your most burning xargs questions

Dynamically loading code as it is needed is attractive as it keeps the kernel size to a minimum and makes the kernel very flexible. For DOS formatted disks, those formatted by fdisk, there are four primary disk partitions. Linux is that power. The originator of the request, the client, creates …

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Getting Gnome Flashback to work with a dual screen monitor

The kernel allocates a new module data structure and enough kernel memory to hold the new module and puts it at the end of the kernel modules list. By virtue of its open source licensing, Linux is freely available to anyone. People who develop OSS commonly use the Internet to …

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How to automate dpkg

You can easily see the exported kernel symbols and their values by looking at /proc/ksyms or by using the ksyms utility. As the writing process writes to the pipe, bytes are copied into the shared data page and when the reading process reads from the pipe, bytes are copied …

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Is C Sharp the best programming language for Linux?

This is one of those arguments that sounds good superficially but which is not borne out by the evidence. If the thief runs, he/she probably won't get caught, and it is a quick way to make some extra cash. If you've always wanted to learn programming, whether you want …

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The ultimate guide to gs

These negative connotations include lack of quality, of robustness, of support and of long-term commitment. The shell program is what presents the prompt and accepts subsequent commands. This means that it's not enough for a Linux platform to support what an enterprise needs right now. Copyright does not protect facts …

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Using the ifdown tool on Kali

IP addresses on the other hand can be assigned and reassigned by network administrators at will but the network hardware responds only to ethernet frames with its own physical address or to special multicast addresses which all machines must receive. Any site that is requested through the "what's that site …

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Boost your mastery of mt with these tips

Institutions that rely solely on commercial-proprietary vendors - whether on-premises or cloud-based - effectively outsource their IT strategy and reduce their capability to deal with change with agility. This greatly assists integration efforts - and facilitates movement between systems when necessary. But, due to some recent changes, Ubuntu has switched back to GNOME …

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Generating use cases for C Sharp

All Unix versions and workalikes, including Linux, communciate between devices (computers, printers, cash registers, etc) using TCP/IP. Where Linux has shown a significant advantage over proprietary Unix is in its availability across a vast number of hardware platforms and devices. As both communities have matured over the past decade …

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How logname can help power your webapp

When a user-space application requests that a given filename be opened, the kernel opens the directory containing the filename and searches for the given name. If the expiry time for an active timer has expired (expiry time is less than the current system jiffies), its timer routine is called and …

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How to set up the Python environment on Ubuntu

A mechanism is needed whereby activities can be scheduled to run at some relatively precise time. The registered protocol operations are kept in the pops vector, a vector of pointers to proto_ops data structures. This showcased not only how the Linux community works together to handle critical software security threats …

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How to set up the Zsh environment on Ubuntu

The device driver places bytes onto the queue, one by one, and user space reads the bytes in the order that they were placed on the queue. Although Linux was only created in 1991, the number of Linux users estimated by Red Hat in 1998 was 7.5 million, and …

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Interesting apps based on ifconfig

Linux runs faster than both Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 thanks to its light-weight architecture. Common feedback would include questions about how something works or why you chose a particular approach along with suggestions for improvements or requests for changes. A block device cannot transfer or access a unit …

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A simple guide to ld

The saved uid stores the original effective uid; its value is used in deciding what effective uid values the user may switch to. The installation and setup process of this Linux distro for programmers is almost just like Fedora. The address bus specifies the memory locations (addresses) for the data …

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