Linux CLI goodness with strace

Linux keeps looking through the pending list from the start until there is a pass where no semaphore operations can be applied and so no more processes can be woken. For example 128 or 512 bytes, even if the device driver asks for less. For developers, opening one's mind to …

more ...

Getting your Terminal emulator up and running on Linux

If two signals are generated for a process at the same time then they may be presented to the process or handled in any order. DevOps has existed in the IT buzzword lexicon for several years now, offering a better delineation (and working relationship) between developer and IT operations professionals …

more ...

At the command line with numactl

Every process except the first has a parent. Every transmitted ethernet frame can be seen by all connected hosts and so every ethernet device has a unique address. There is also the reverse function, Reverse ARP or RARP, which translates phsyical network addresses into IP addresses. This pragmatic approach forces …

more ...

Get the most out of Freesco

Very little Free Software would be written, and that which was written may not be released to the public. (See "Shell Built-in Commands.") Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behavior. Sections are linear chunks of the object code that load into linear chunks of memory …

more ...

Getting your CD burners up and running on Linux

What most of us call "files" are what Linux labels regular files. It stands to affect the people of the world at least as profoundly as the Industrial Age. From the process's perspective, the view of the system is as though it alone were in control. This operation is called …

more ...

Programming with Python on Aurora

Interfaces documented by standards, such as the standard C library, will obviously always remain source compatible. It is the responsibility of the developers to fix these bugs as reported. The smallest addressable unit on a block device is the sector. Developing the core is pretty serious business, involving pretty serious …

more ...

Getting C++ and CentOS to play nicely

Members of this process group (processes whose process group ID is equal to the current terminal process group ID) receive keyboard-generated signals such as SIGINT. Often the quickest way to access KPPP to set up an Internet connection is to open a terminal window (i.e., a text-only window in …

more ...

Getting acquainted with Mandriva Linux

The basics of Unix programming have existed untouched for decades. Reading and changing a data source: An exampleA Linux machine is going to generate a lot of data in its day-to-day activity. Major players in the commercial arena are taking serious notice of Linux. Thereafter all of the applications file …

more ...

Job control under Devil-Linux

A partition is a large group of sectors allocated for a particular purpose. In 1991, this final gap was filled by Linux, a kernel which was written independently of the GNU project by Linus Torvalds, then a computer science student in Finland, but which made use of GNU development tools …

more ...

Developing with ip

By virtue of its open source licensing, Linux is freely available to anyone. The exact meaning of operations on a BSD socket depends on its underlying address family. This sort of memory is very fast but expensive, therefore most processors have a small amount of on-chip cache memory and more …

more ...


Getting started with ypbind on Arch Linux

Because of POSIX standards and compliance, software written on Unix could be compiled for a Linux operating system with a usually limited amount of porting effort. When the process resumes operation it appears as if the signal handling routine were called normally. They will be the "power users" and the …

more ...

Fundamentals of libpipeline

Its instructions are simple load and store instructions (load a value from memory, perform an operation and store the result back into memory). If the default handling is needed, then Linux can optimize the handling of the signal. A mere year later, ext2 ate its lunch. Although the terms free …

more ...

Job control under Slackware

If job control is in effect, bash ignores SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, and SIGTSTP. If you are just getting started with operating system development, this is not really the place to start. If this company transitions to another operating system, its staff would need to be retrained or hired, and much of …

more ...

Learn file to further your career

However, diving in without an understanding of those projects, their communities, and how they operate can lead to frustrations for those companies as well as the open source communities. Connecting to the Internet with Linux is fairly simple. Secondly, the DMA controller cannot access the whole of physical memory. None …

more ...

Redirecting output with G2Linx

Almost certainly, but it's doubtful that it would maintain the presence that Android currently enjoys in today's consumer market. For the old system timers the timer_active bit mask is check for bits that are set. There are more than enough Linux haters out there to spotlight their dislikes in Linux …

more ...

Shortcuts for edquota made easy

In 2013, LinuxCounter.net (http://linuxcounter.net) estimated that the number of Linux users was over 70 million, and Google estimated that over 900 million Linux- based Android devices had shipped to date. In fact, some people say that it is now actually easier to install Linux than to install …

more ...

How to evaluate error messages with less

Users of closed source operating systems must report the bug to the manufacturer and wait for the manufacturer to develop, test, and release a solution to the problem, known as a hot fix. Thus, there is no term free mathematics. Outsource open source software development to O2I and benefit from …

more ...

Unwrapping rshd

Where does the bash fit in? Background processes that attempt to read from (write to) the terminal are sent a SIGTTIN (SIGTTOU) signal by the terminal driver, which, unless caught, suspends the process. Advances in mathematics cannot be copyrighted or patented, and they become immediately available for everyone to use …

more ...

What's the purpose of the ChangeLog.txt file?

Further complications arise when shared virtual memory is not locked into physical memory. It is the scheduler that must select the most deserving process to run out of all of the runnable processes in the system. Even if you are an aged UNIX guru, what follows is probably of interest …

more ...

What's your favourite CD burners

Many of the devices you own probably, such as Android phones, digital storage devices, personal video recorders, cameras, wearables, and more, also run Linux. There are many valid reasons why something might not be accepted, so don't take it personally if your code is rejected, and if possible, try to …

more ...

Is COBOL the best programming language for Linux?

The reality is that not only are more and more businesses and other organizations finding out that Linux can help reduce the costs of using computers, but also that more and more companies are likewise discovering that Linux can also be a great way to make money. Critical mass will …

more ...

Running sendmail inside a docker image

Some cross-site-scripting attacks are possible when the attacker finds a weak spot in your source code and they can even leave the malicious code dormant for a long time before executing it. Also pulling more from a cultural level than a technical one are the concepts of crowdsourcing and crowdfunding …

more ...

Create your own video streaming server with BioKnoppix

Time enough for a soapbox. The application can then trap into the kernel through this well-defined mechanism and execute only code that the kernel allows it to execute. In this case the semaphore clean up code simply discards the sem_undo data structure. Andrew Tannenbaum developed it for teaching purposes and …

more ...

Sysadmin and Devops using vdir

If a developer needs a VM or if IT Ops needs to provision a server, they expect to do so quickly and painlessly; Linux's scalability allows for this rapid provisioning, as does its lack of cost-prohibitive licensing. These processes are said to be in the foreground. The file position starts …

more ...

Principles of prelink under Linux

The module data structure is marked as DELETED and it is unlinked from the list of kernel modules. They work because they want to help themselves, their user base, or their software project. To make sure that even in a dual boot scenario office staff do not cling to their …

more ...

Sysadmin and Devops using script

This is also true for a number of major system tasks where the hardware and software must cooperate closely to achieve their aims. Moreover, most programming languages (if they aren't limited to a particular OS) work on Linux. New processes are created via the fork() system call. Each approach has …

more ...

The secret of lprintd

This subshell reinitializes itself, so that the effect is as if a new shell had been invoked to handle the script, with the exception that the locations of commands remembered by the parent are retained by the child. Linux can do everything NT does, usually faster, definately more stable and …

more ...

Graphical tools for manipulating PDFs on the CRUX desktop

Keep in mind that these are only conventions---not rules. In fact, the current cloud functions-as-a-service (FaaS)/serverless computing model owes much of its heritage to the Unix philosophy. This chapter describes how Linux supports the network protocols known collectively as TCP/IP. Remember that the shell is a program providing …

more ...

A lazy person's guide to mcopy

Each command comes with a manual page which can be used to learn about its function as well as what options and arguments each specific command accepts. Before I became involved in Free Software, I had far different opinions, ideas, and beliefs than I do today. A security breach unnoticed …

more ...

How to evaluate error messages with showkey

Yet the human factor is probably one of the most significant in not only how smoothly the actual Linux conversion goes but also how well it is adopted and beneficial to your organization. 3D printing would've surely emerged even without Linux, but thanks to the widespread power of the platform …

more ...

My emacs and metasend workflow

Typing the suspend character (typically ^Z, Control-Z) while a process is running causes that process to be stopped and returns you to bash. One more thing, if you don't want your programming Linux distro to be devoid of systemd, there's an OpenRC spin for that. We heartily recommend you get …

more ...

Learn mesg to further your career

You can also edit boot options on the fly from the GRUB menu. The operating system then uses the computer hardware to perform the tasks required by the applications. These are independently developed pieces of software that work with the kernel in order to function as a complete operating system …

more ...

Boost your mastery of hostid with these tips

This translates into a lot of time for UNIX to get it right - something Microsoft is still struggling with. So, /dev/hda2, the second partition of the primary IDE disk has a major number of 3 and a minor number of 2. If you tried to code up something similar …

more ...

Succeed with op on Linux

If a parent process terminates before its child, the kernel will reparent the child to the init process. The takeover of software by corporations continued at a rapid pace, and free software was becoming an endangered species. Although the source code must be made freely available in all cases, there …

more ...


The ultimate guide to rusersd

Linux does not. In this book, when I talk of gcc, I typically mean the program gcc, unless context suggests otherwise. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. As such it is possible to have two …

more ...

Compiling your own kernel on Trustix

The command cd may be run without a location as we saw in the shortcut above but usually will be run with a single command line argument which is the location we would like to change into. Thus they are also called built-in commands. Programmers write Linux source code in …

more ...

Getting started with inetd on Arch Linux

Without Linux, IoT would likely simply be too financially draining or require lock-in to a single vendor's stack. Fortunately for us there is an easy to use resource that can inform us about all the great things we can do on the command line. Some such devices are partionable, which …

more ...

Getting a mail server up and running on Aurora SPARC Linux

In this article we will introduce you to why these accounts are important. In addition, by studying Linux, one is actually simultaneously becoming proficient with all Unix-like operating systems, including the proprietary flavors (i.e., versions) of UNIX such as Solaris and AIX, and Mac OS X (whose underlying operating …

more ...